gr 15 = 1 g The drug is available in 250 mg tablets. This is because when such items are asked in examinations, an examinee is expected to calculate and compute drug dosages for their patients. How many mL of the IV fluid should you infuse per hour? Using ratio and proportion, this problem is set up and solved as shown below. It is essential so you will not get lost between drug calculations as physicians commonly order a medication available in a different preparation. Proportions are used to calculate how one part is equal to another part or to the whole. Drop factor 10 was used for the patient’s macrodrip set. Drug calculations tests are used for a variety of medical professions, including nursing, midwifery and para-medicine.The tests for drug calculation can be used when assessing potential employees or to help practising medical professionals work on their skills. IN – Intranasal IP – Intraperitoneal Drug Calculations for Nurses A Step by Step Approach, 3rd Edition Robert Lapham Heather Agar Download your FREE Dosage Calculation Conversions Cheat Sheet to take with you to clinical so you can reference it anytime you need! p.o – By mouth It should be regulated to how many drops per minute? 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This quiz here consists of some basic questions of drug/medicines, their dose, and usage. mcL → mL → L → kL ( ÷ by 1,000 ), min ← hr ( x by 60 ) The process for calculating intramuscular and subcutaneous dosages is practically identical to that of calculating oral dosages using ratio and proportion. Medical Dosage Calculations For Dummies Cheat Sheet By Richard Snyder, Barry Schoenborn No matter what initials you have after your name (RN, CNA, PA, and so on), you can bet you’ll see math on a daily basis if you’re going into (or are already in) a career in the medical field. tsp – teaspoon In this section you will get a brief review of basic arithmetic calculations and a review of the ratio and proportion method that is used for the calculation of dosages and solutions. Here is an example: Doctor's order: Meperidine 20 mg IM q4h prn for pain. Thankfully, these steps will help take some of the pressure off. The IV fluid will be infused for 14 hours and the drop factor of the macrodrip used is 20. gtts/min = (Number of mLs to be delivered)/(The Number of Minutes) x Drip or drop factor for the IV tubing, Doctor's order: 0.9% NaCl solution at 50 mL per hour. Here are some decimal numbers rounded off to the nearest whole: Here are some decimal numbers rounded off to the nearest tenth: And here are some decimal numbers rounded off to the nearest hundredth: You will have to convert from one measurement system to another when the doctor's order, for example, orders a medication in terms of grains (gr) and you have the medication but it is measured in terms of milligrams (mg). All decimals are based on our system of tens; in fact the "dec" of the word decimal means 10. How many mL or cc will you give for each prn dose? IV– Intravenous For example, 0.7 is 7 tenths; 8.13 is 8 and 13 hundredths; and likewise, 9.546 is 9 and 546 thousandths. L– liter A fraction cannot be reduced when there is no number that can be divided evenly into both. Here is an example of how to calculate oral medication dosage using ratio and proportion: Doctor's order: 125 mg of medication once a day. This article features the ten of the best free drug guides for nurses online that you must consider. [Desired dosage ÷ stock strength] x stock volume = amount of solution to be given, [375 mg ÷ 750 mg] x 10 mL = amount of solution to be given, [130 mg ÷ 250 mg] x 5 mL = amount of solution to be given. Decimals express numbers more or less than one in combination with a decimal number of less than one like a mixed number is. SL – Sublingual Home / NCLEX-RN Exam / Dosage Calculations: NCLEX-RN. BSA Calculator Calculates BSA according to height and weight. The common drop factors used in different hospitals are 10, 15 and 20. It is expected that you achieve 100% – and why shouldn’t that be an expectation!! This calculation is performed as seen below. Perfect revision for any drug calculation test including non-medical prescribing tests. This is everything you need to know about solving Dosage Calculations! Here’s an in-depth yet easy-to-understand guide to help you out. After each video, test your knowledge with the interactive activities. You have to determine which number can be divided evenly into both the numerator and the denominator to reduce fractions. So, let's get to it. To calculate and administer the correct dose of a medicine to a patient, nurses need to understand the different measurements used for drug dosages in healthcare and be able to convert between different units of measurement. How much should you give to your patient? Example: Dopamine is infusing. Nursing Pharmacology Mnemonics & Tricks – Learn nursing pharmacologythe fun way using these easy-to-memorize mnemonics and useful study guides. 21.98 = 21 and 98 hundredths or 21 98/100. Although there is no room for errors, a nurse should be able to immediately recognize that a calculation is wrong and incorrect. Body Weight Calculations (single dose) To work out the dosage based on the weight of the patient use the following formula Dosage required = prescription x body weight Example: Mrs B has been prescribed Ibuprofen 5mg/kg/dose. How to Solve Drug Calculations • Identify what type of drug calculation and as a first step, use common sense to estimate a rough answer. Use the universal formula below and then divide your final answer by the patient's weight in kg to arrive at mcg/kg/minute. Proper fractions are less than 1 and improper fractions are more than one 1. How much should you give to your patient? How many gtts per minute should be administered if the tube delivers 20 gtt/mL? It is easy to understand and practice the formulas presented above using these audio-visual learning tools: As long as you know the basic formulas of drug calculations, you will never be lost in finding the desired dosage for your patient. The trick in mastering drug calculations is to know unit conversions by heart. mg– milligram It is important to know the recognized abbreviations in clinical setting so you will not be lost when preparing medications for your patient. X gtts per min = (50 x 20)/60 = 1000/60 = 16.6 gtts which rounded off to the closest drop is 17 gtts, Doctor's order: 500 mL of 5% D 0.45 normal saline solution to infuse over 2 hours. You should regulate the IV fluid for how many drops per minute? The nurse’s quick guide to I.V. The patient is ordered to have 2 g of potassium chloride. For this oral dosage problem, you have to find out how many mL of tetracycline the patient will get when the doctor has ordered 150 mg and the syrup has 50 mg/ml. The bottle states dopamine 80… The physician orders to start venoclysis with D5 0.3 NaCl 1 L solution. She weighs 60 kg. Calculating for drops per minute is simple with the following formula: [Total IV volume ÷ time (minute)] x drop factor = drops per minute. If the number in the tenths place is 5 or more, you would round up the 67 to 68 drops. Each question is designed to test and improve the calculation skills of nurses. IO– Intraosseous How many tablets should be administered daily? Accuracy is of paramount importance. Here are the most commonly used abbreviations when preparing drugs: IM– Intramuscular In this tutorial. mcg → mg → g → kg ( ÷ by 1,000 ) X gtts per min = (500 x 10)/120 = 5000 / 120 = 41.66 gtts which is 42 gtts when it is rounded off. Do NOT under any circumstances prepare and/or administer a medication that you are not certain about. What an excellent resource you have created for nursing students! One wrong interpretation and calculation can compromise your patients’ safety and health. mEq- milliequivalent Included topics are dosage calculation, metric conversions, unit conversions, parenteral medications, and fluid input and output. Start venoclysis with D5 0.9 NaCl 1 L to be infused for 16 hours. For example, the ratio of women less than 18 years of age compared to those over 18 years of age, who attend a specific college, can be 6 to 1. I certainly wish I could have had this to discover back when I was in nursing school (but we barely knew what computers were, haha). How many mL should be administered per day? The desired dosage is the ordered dosage of the physician while the stock strength is the amount of drug present in each tablet. Performing the Calculations Needed for Medication Administration, Using Clinical Decision Making When Calculating Doses, Post-Master’s Certificate Nurse Practitioner, Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN), Adverse Effects/Contraindications/Side Effects/Interactions, Pharmacological & Parenteral Therapies Practice Test Questions, Perform calculations needed for medication administration, Use clinical decision making/critical thinking when calculating dosages, Multiple the denominator of the fraction by the whole number, Add the numerator of the fraction to this number, Place this number over the denominator of the fraction. Despite that, however, pharmacology for nurses shouldn’t make you feel scared or overwhelmed. Below is a table showing the weight and volume apothecary system measures and their approximate equivalents: The metric measurement system has volume measurements including liters (L), cubic milliliters (ml) and cubic centimeter (cc); its units of weight are (kg), grams (g), milligrams (mg) and micrograms (mcg). Nursing Tutoring Essentials can assist you in in preparing for your drug calculations test, which generally occurs throughout your RN nursing university degree. drug calculations – This article will provide a simple and concise method for accurate computation using basic calculations. A pediatric patient recovering from accidental fall is about to be given with 130 mg paracetamol syrup. These different ways are listed below. When you have to round off a number like 67.8 o the nearest whole number, you must look at the number in the tenths place which is 8. How many minutes are remaining before you are due to change the IV fluid? bottle (drug concentration or number of mL of fluid). 4. This problem can be set up and calculated as shown below. This nursing test bank set includes 100+ questions broken down into four parts. Abbreviations rule the medical world. The most frequently used conversions are shown below. IVP– Intravenous Push For example, 4 grains is written as gr iv. Standardised international units; 4. Many nurses are weak with drug calculations of all sorts. Below is a table displaying the metric length, volume and weight measurements and their equivalents: The two types of fractions are proper fractions and improper fractions. In this section you will get a brief review of basic arithmetic calculations and a review of the ratio and proportion method that is used for the calculation of dosages and solutions. This problem is set up and calculated as shown below. For example, 24 / 56 has a numerator and denominator that can be equally divided by 8. Here are 13 categories you will be tested on with this quiz: Doctor's order: Heparin 3,000 units subcutaneously. Learn dosage calculations with this free tutorial complete with explanations, examples, and practice questions. If they are not equal they are NOT considered a ratio. In this case, you will have to mathematically convert the gr into mg. The following videos are an introduction to basic drug calculations for nursing. Nursing calculations . 3. 1/2, 6/8 and 12/4, for example; the numerators for each of these fractions are 1, 6 and 12, respectively; and the denominators for each of these fractions are 2, 8 and 4, respectively. SEE - Pharmacological & Parenteral Therapies Practice Test Questions. She worked as a registered nurse in the critical care area of a local community hospital and, at this time, she was committed to become a nursing educator. Home. The household measurement system is typically only used for patients who are in the home and not in a hospital or another healthcare facility. [Total IV volume ÷ time (minute) ] x drop factor = drops per minute, [{1 L x 1,000} ÷ {14 hours x 60} ] x 20 = drops per minute, [1,000 mL ÷ 840 minutes] x 20 = drops per minute, [500 mL ÷ 7 hours] x 15 = drops per minute, [500 mL ÷ {7 hours x 60}] x 15 = drops per minute. Below are the four most important calculation formulas that you should know in preparing medications and drips. Abbreviations rule the medical world. If at any point you are not sure of a conversion factor, look it up. It is expected that these computations are accurate. Nurses apply clinical decision making and professional thinking skills to the calculations of dosages and solution rates. Drugs are generally measured according to either: 1. Here are some of the most popular videos about drug calculations. Administering intravenous (IV) therapy to patients requires you to develop your competency in the following two areas: mathematics, so that you can work out correct dosages and understand the effect of IV drugs and fluids on the body; and administration techniques, so that you employ the correct means, use the correct equipment and monitor the […] The following formula is useful in calculating mixtures and solutions: Desired dosage ÷ stock strength x stock volume = amount of solution to be given. For example, if your answer to an intravenous flow rate is 67.8 drops per minutes, you would round the number off to the nearest whole drop because you cannot count parts of a drop. Here is another example of calculating an oral dosage with a liquid oral medication: Doctor's order: Tetracycline syrup 150 mg po once daily, Medication label: Tetracycline syrup 50 mg/mL. µg– microgram Know the patient's weight in kg if your calculation is weight based. 3 2/8 = (8 x 3 + 2) / 8 = (24 + 2 = 26) / 8. For example, if the nurse calculates an intravenous flow rate and the answer is that the rate of the flow should be 250 gtts per minute, the nurse should immediately recognize that this answer is ridiculous because it is not possible to accurately count this number of drops per minute. The three measurement systems that are used in pharmacology are the household measurement system, the metric system and the apothecary system. Stock strength is also known as stock dose. Because both multiplication calculations are equal and 32, this is a ratio. Queen's University Belfast is committed to Equality, Diversity and Inclusion. This is a great tool to help students, nurses, paramedics, allied health professionals and doctors to sharpen their skills or maintain competency. 4. Measurements used in the household measurement system include teaspoons, tablespoons, drops, ounces, cups, pints, quart, gallons, and pounds: The apothecary measurement system has weight measurements like dram, ounce, grain (gr), scruple, and pound. It is easy to calculate the running rate of IV fluids in terms of mL per hour or mL per minute: Total IV volume ÷ time (hour or minute) = mL per hour or minute. The first place after the decimal point is tenths; the second place after the decimal point is hundredths; the third place after the decimal point is referred to as thousandths; the fourth place after the decimal point is ten thousandths, and so on. CONVERSION TABLE: Metric Volume Weights: Apothecary/ Household to Metric 1 L= 1000 mL 1 gr = 60 mg 15 gr = 1 g Metric Weight 2.2 lbs = 1 kg 1000 mcg = 1 mg Solutions […] Similarly, if you have to round off the number 23.54 to the nearest tenth place, you would look at the number in the hundredths place and if this number is 5 or more, you would round up the number in the tenths place, but if the number is less than 5, you would leave the number in the tenths place as it is. Drug Absorption (Pka) Determines how well a medication will be … Considering the IV fluid level of the patient, for how many minutes will it run. Well, you have to make sure you are updated with the basics and essentials needed to get through the main exam. Calculating for the remaining time of infusion for a certain IV fluid is possible with the following formula: [Volume remaining (in mL) ÷ drops per minute] x drop factor = minutes remaining. Both proper and improper fractions can be reduced to their lowest common denominator. You are going to start IV infusion with Plain Lactated Ringer’s Solution 1 L. By regulating it for 11 hours, how much fluid are you going to infuse per minute? 1. Drug calculations 1. 2. You can also apply clinical decision making and professional thinking skills to the calculations of dosages and solution rates based on your knowledge of pharmacology and the usual pediatric and adults dosages for all medications. lb → kg ( ÷ by 2.2 ), mcL ← mL ← L ← kL ( x by 1,000 ) The drop factor is the “drops per milliliter” delivered to the patient and it depends on the macrodrip used for the infusion. min → hr ( ÷ by 60 ). Decimal numbers are often rounded off when pharmacology calculations are done. Introduction When calculating how much of a drug is required, working with the formula helps the accuracy of the calculation. The nurse should recalculate the flow rate in this instance. Specimen Drug Cupboard.pdf [pdf] 562KB; Specimen NUH medicines management test paper.pdf [pdf] 137KB; Calculators are not permitted, but the IV infusion calculation formula will be available. It takes a lot of practice to master drug calculations and you don’t need to memorize it. 2.54 cm = 1 in The weight of a drug (grams, milligrams and micrograms, for example); 2. In this section are the practice problems and questions for drug dosage calculations. ID – Intradermal IT – Intrathecal – Vaginally, Kg– kilogram CTRL + SPACE for auto-complete. The drug is available in 750 mg vial. There are times that nurses make an error in terms of their calculations and these error can be absolutely ridiculous and, at other times, these calculations can appear to be correct. – Topical For these calculations, you criss cross multiply the known numbers and then divide this product of the multiplication by the remaining number to get the unknown or the unknown number. Converts an adult dosage into a pediatric using BSA. The macrodrip used has 15 drop factor. On the other hand, 2/5 and 8/11 are not proportions because 8 x 5 which is 40 is not equal to 11 x 2 which is 22. Nursing calculations. SC / SubQ – Subcutaneous Strength of solution, when a weight of a drug is dissolved in a volume of liquid (fo… The volume (millilitres and litres); 3. After each question is answered instant feedback is provided to the user. mg/dL – milligrams per deciliter. 74 thoughts on “ Dosage calculations the easy way! She got her bachelor’s of science in nursing with Excelsior College, a part of the New York State University and immediately upon graduation she began graduate school at Adelphi University on Long Island, New York. Again, you should do your calculations over again and check them to insure that you are accurate. It will test your knowledge on how to convert ounces to milliliters, teaspoons to milliliters using the pharmacy dispensed dose. Dosage and Calculations Practice Tests are some of the most commonly-searched practice exams for both student nurses and nurses wanting to take licensure and certification exams.. Lower case Roman numerals are used in this system of measurement and these Roman numerals follow the unit of measurement. Log in to leave feedback . Dr. Rachel Silva DNP May 9, 2015 at 11:06 am. Exam Practice Questions - Set 1; Exam Practice Questions - Set 2 The volume remaining is the amount of IV fluid remaining for the infusion while the drops per minute is the regulation of the IV infusion. RegisteredNursing.org does not guarantee the accuracy or results of any of this information. Before mastering drug dosage formula, you should first learn how to convert the commonly used units of measurements in drug preparation. In this section of the NCLEX-RN examination, you will be expected to demonstrate your knowledge and skills of dosage calculations in order to: Safe nursing care mandates accuracy in the calculation of dosages and solution rates. It is important to know the recognized abbreviations in clinical setting so you will not be lost when preparing medications for your patient. Dimensional analysis: Calculate dosages the easy way – This article introduces the DA method of performing dosage calculations to practicing nurses. There are a couple of different ways that ratios can be written. When the decimal point is preceded with a 0, the number is less than 1; and when there is a whole number before the decimal point, the decimal number is more than 1. The fractions must be equal. Doing math in nursing and nursing school is a lot harder and more critical than you think. top. Find out what's in your I.V. When comparing ratios, they should be written as fractions. You have to convert all mixed numbers into improper fractions before you can perform calculations using them. vag. The most common conversion factors you will use for drug dosage calculations are the following: gr 1 = 60 mg • Remember that a formula often used for working out how many tablets to take or for a drug taken She has authored hundreds of courses for healthcare professionals including nurses, she serves as a nurse consultant for healthcare facilities and private corporations, she is also an approved provider of continuing education for nurses and other disciplines and has also served as a member of the American Nurses Association’s task force on competency and education for the nursing team members. A variety of 100 unique drug practice calculations aimed at nurses and student nurses. The ratio and proportion method is the most popular methods for calculating dosages and solutions. PLEASE NOTE: The contents of this website are for informational purposes only. Write CSS OR LESS and hit save. She graduated Summa Cum Laude from Adelphi with a double masters degree in both Nursing Education and Nursing Administration and immediately began the PhD in nursing coursework at the same university. Introduction. If you are calculated the number of tablets that you should administer to the client according to the doctor's order and your mathematics indicates that you should give 1/8th of a tablet or 12 tablets, for example, you should immediately know that your calculations are inaccurate because these answers are ridiculous. Safe nursing practice is always your number one priority. Dosage & Calculation Quiz for Oral Liquid Drugs Nursing Students This dosage and calculation quiz is to help you solve drug calculation for drugs that are prepared in the liquid form. mL– milliliter How many gtt per minute should be given if the tubing delivers 10 gtt/mL? lb ← kg ( x by 2.2 ) O 2 Remaining in E-Cylinder Calculates how much O 2 is left according to flow rate. All trademarks are the property of their respective trademark holders. Nursing competence in drug calculations has been a cause for concern (Duffin, 2000; Coombes, 2000). The procedure for converting mixed numbers into improper fractions is: The calculation below shows how you how you convert a mixed number into a fraction. The volume units of measurement in the apothecary measurement system are a fluid ounce, a pint, a minim, a fluid dram, a quart and a gallon. How many milliliters will be administered for this patient? To reduce this fraction you would divide 24 by 8 which is 3 and you would then divide the 56 by 8 which is which is 7. gm– gram This is Med Math Made Easy! The table below shows conversion equivalents among the metric, apothecary and household measurement systems. When, for example, you are calculating a dosage for a medication like digoxin and your calculation indicates that you should administer 2 1/2 milligrams, you should immediately know that this dosage is far beyond the usual dosage for digoxin. It is suggested that you memorize these. In this problem you have to determine how many tablets the patient will take if the doctor order is 125 mg a day and the tablets are manufactured in tablets and each tablet has 250 mg. Answer: 5 … Please do not hesitate to contact either an HR officer or a nurse from the Department of Nursing Development if you need to discuss any concerns. The desired dosage is the ordered dosage of the physician. 2.2 lb = 1 kg, 30 mL = 1 oz How many tablets should be given? Top 10 Best Online Drug Guides for Nurses – Say goodbye to bulky nursing drug handbooks. In many cases, drawing a picture that visually represents the problem is often a helpful strategy. You plan to dilute it in 10 mL of sterile water. mcg– microgram Drug Dosage Calculation Practice Quiz. tbsp – tablespoon Dosage (drug) calculations nursing comprehensive quiz for students! Maths, statistics, physics & chemistry. Calculate how much Ibuprofen you will give her. 1 tsp = 5 mL Drug Calculations for Health Professionals will be helpful to anyone who has a need or interest in teaching or learning drug calculations. This will help you to solve those issues. gtt – drop It is regulated to run for 22 drops per minute using a macrodrip set with drop factor 20. Follow these four steps to easily calculate your patient's accurate drug dosage. In calculating tablet dosages, the following formula is useful: Desired dosage ÷ stock strength = number of tablets. Safe nursing care mandates accuracy in the calculation of dosages and solution rates. Dosage calculations can be intense, and you should always be very careful when doing the math. Drug Calculations Rami AL-Khateeb 2. Reducing fractions make them more understandable and easier to work with. Outlines Introduction Metric Conversions MG/KG Dose Conversion Flow Infusion Rates 3. Some examples of mixed numbers are 4 1/4, 3 5/6 and 24 6/7. Hutton (1998a) suggests that a degree of ‘de-skilling’ has resulted from the increasingly user-friendliness of drug preparations and widespread use of electronic drip counters. For example, the ratios 2 : 8 and 4 : 16 are equal and equivalent. Mixed numbers are a combination of a whole number greater than one and a fraction. Answer practice questions at home and in a short period of time, nursing pharmacology will just be a piece of cake for you. A ratio is two or more pairs of numbers that are compared in terms of size; weight or volume. The physician orders 1,500 mg of calcium carbonate for the patient. You are going to regulate D5 0.9 NaCl 500 mL solution for 7 hours. For more information please read our Equality and Diversity Policy.. Queen's University Belfast is registered with the Charity Commission for Northern Ireland NIC101788 Many nursing students panic in their drug calculation exams. Client safety is paramount. Alene Burke RN, MSN is a nationally recognized nursing educator. Although there are other methods, like dimensional analysis for example, that can also be used, only ratio and proportion will be used in this NCLEX-RN review for brevity sake. Determine in which units your drug is measured (units/hour, mg/hour, or mcg/kg/minute). The stock strength is the amount of drug present in the preparation while the stock volume is the amount of the solution where the drug is diluted. She began her work career as an elementary school teacher in New York City and later attended Queensborough Community College for her associate degree in nursing. Are you looking towards or preparing for becoming a medical assistant or nurse? Once you are regularly working in a clinical setting, you will get used to the common formulas used in determining desired dosages or IV regulations for the patient. This means that there are 6 times as many women less than 18 years old as there are women over 18 years of age. A patient has 350 mL of Plain 0.9 NaCl solution as IV infusion regulated at 20 drops per minute. 1 standard measuring cup = 240 mL, mcg ← mg ← g ← kg ( x by 1,000 ) µgtt – micro drop IVPB – Intravenous piggyback The total IV volume is the amount of IV fluid to be infused while time is the duration of how long the IV fluid should be infused in terms of minutes. How many tablets should be given to the patient? This drug calculations review contains questions that covers a wide variety of dosage calculations problems you will encounter on exams and on the job. The drop factor can be determined in the macrodrip used in the hospital. You see that your patient has D5 0.9 NaCl IV infusion at 400 mL level. Drug Calculation Exam Practice: Adult. The drug is available in 500 mg tablets. Total IV volume ÷ time (hour or minute) = mL per hour, Total IV volume ÷ time (hour or minute) = mL per minute, [1 L x 1,000] ÷ [11 hours x 60] = mL per minute, 1,000 mL÷ [11 hours x 60] = mL per minute. In order to prove that they are equal, simply write down the ratios and simply criss cross multiply both the numerators and the denominators, as below. The physician orders 375 mg of cefuroxime for the patient. Performing the Calculations Needed for Medication Administration. Here are the most commonly used abbreviations when preparing drugs: The total IV volume is the amount of fluid to be infused while the time is the number of running hours or minutes. The drug is available in 250 mg per 5 mL preparation.
2020 drug calculations for nurses