This study combined taxonomic skill with tissue culture. Dioscorea is a genus of over 600 species of flowering plants in the family Dioscoreaceae, native throughout the tropical and warm temperate regions of the world. The study further confirms the taxonomic importance of micro morphological characters in plant taxa as well as the identification of crude drug samples even when fragmentary. Leaf epidermal features that revealed similarities between the wild and micropropagated plants included amphistomatic condition, presence of mucilage, glandular unicellular trichome with multicellular head, polygonal cells with smooth walls, stomata type and shape. The surface-decontaminated explants were trimmed on the edges and cut to the required length (1.0-1.5 cm) before vertically in Murashige Skoog (MS) medium-filled culture tubes (one explant per tube)[24]. Behera KK, Sahoo S, Prusti AB. One should consider the fact that abundant information on diosgenin production in tissue culture on the one hand and rapid development of the biotechnology of the plants on the other, would probably require the application of mathematical programming. Biochemical investigations of D. floribunda following gamma irradiations were studied by Gupta et al. The combination and interaction of BAP and NAA had been reported to play an important role in in vitro propagation of nodal explants for multiple shoot induction[29]. 1033. The quality of shoots and overall growth response in terms of average shoot length and number of leaves was best in this combination in which an average number of leaves (3.00±0.31), average number of shoots (1.33±0.17), average shoot length (53.33±3.50) mm and average root length (25.00±10.61) mm were recorded. Morphology Dioscorea bulbifera is a vigorously twining, long-stemmed perennial vine with non-spiny stems to 20 m or more in length, freely branching above; internodes round or slightly angled in cross section and they twine counter-clockwise. The absence of a stalk in the female flower of D. bulbifera is a distinctive feature of this taxon. Dougall (1979) showed that the yield of diosgenin found in cell culture of D. deltoidea (26mg/g_1 dry wt) was higher than those found in whole plants (20mg/g_1 dry wt). By using these modern and very accurate methods, it will be possible to apply plant cell cultures to commercial diosgenin production. The highest root proliferation was obtained from Murashige Skoog medium of 6-benzylamino purine (0.05 mg/L) and α-naphthaleneacetic acid (0.01 mg/L) with mean root length of (27.00±1.25) mm and elongated single shoot of mean length (38.00±11.09) mm. D. bulbifera, besides being important as an edible yam, is used in traditional medicine[17]. The only exception is D. bulbifera, which, although if has stems twining to the left and globose tuber and forms bulbils, was not found to contain sapogenins. Generating an ePub file may take a long time, please be patient. Study of the hepatotoxicity induced by, Gao H, Wu L, Kuroyanagi M. Seven compounds from, Wang JM, Ji LL, Branford-White CJ, Wang ZY, Shen KK, Liu H, et al. 1, Bureau of Methods Development and Biological Control 2 Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry, Gainesville, FL 32608 Quick Identification Guide: Air Potato, Dioscorea bulbifera (1984). Smillie TJ, Khan IA. Dioscorea bulbifera L. (Family: Dioscoreaceae) commonly known as ‘air potato’ is an important edible medicinal plant use to treat a wide range of diseases. Sautour M, Mitaine-Offer A, Lacaille-Dubois M. The Dioscorea genus: a review of bioactive steroid saponins. We are experimenting with display styles that make it easier to read articles in PMC. A: Purple nodal segments obtained from underground bulbil following dormancy break; B: Greenish nodal segments from green house. sativa Prain. Antibacterial activities of the extract, fractions and compounds from, Shriram V, Jahagirdar S, Latha C, Kumar V, Puranik V, Rojatkar S, et al. Though many papers have reported the importance of micro characters, this report focused on the comparison between wild and micro propagated relatives using such characters and thus introducing another research dimension in biodiversity conservation. 2014 Mar; 4(3): 176–183. Santos L, Thadeo LD, Larema L, Alves RM, Ferreira FA. Glycerin was used as mountant, and epidermises were covered with coverslips and the edges of the slide sealed with nail varnish to prevent dehydration. Copyright © 2020 | First Mag designed by Themes4WP. Morpho-anatomical, biochemical and molecular parameters have also been used to monitor integrity and stability of in vitro grown plants[9]. The basal medium was fortified with cysteine (20 mg/L), combination of α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) (0.0-1.5 mg/L) and 6-benzylamino purine (BAP) (0.0-1.0 mg/L), NAA (2.0 mg/L) and NAA [2.0 mg/L+BAP (0.5 mg/L)]. Smilacifolia De Wild. Sarma (1980) studied the influence of diosgenin, isolated from D. prazeri, on chromosomes of Allium cepa. It is commonly called air potato, air yam or bulbil-bearing yam. Morphologically, the leaf description of the wild and micropropagated plants were similar in terms of leaf venation which was parallel and vein convergence at the base, leaf shape in both was cordate with long petiole and alternate arrangement, leaf margin was entire with aerial bulbils produced from the node in both wild and micropropagated plants. Also, mucilages have been reported in the epidermis of senna (Cassia acutifolia Delile), Alexandrian senna (Cassia augustifolia Vahl), Cassia auriculata Linn. Morphology and the ability to form microtuber were also found to be unaltered in cryopreserved embryo-derived plantlets. Dioscorea bulbifera Linn. Okeke EC, Eneobong HN, Uzuegbunam AO, Ozioko AO, Kuhnlein H. Igbo tradional food system: documentation, uses and research needs. The tubers are given the name yams. bulbifera L.,D. 1753.. Tubérculos hipogeos y esféricos, 20 30 cm de diámetro, corteza café clara a amarillenta, lisa; bulbilos esféricos, 1 10 cm de diámetro; tallos levovolubles. According to Fowler (1984), the steroids derived from diosgenin are among the ten most often prescribed medicines of plant origin. Its traditional usage is well-recognized in the Chinese medicinal systems as well as in West Africa. A survey of epidermal morphology of the genus. Multiple shoots from subcultured nodal segments. Climate Status (D. bulbifera) belongs to the family Dioscoreaceae assigned to the order Dioscorales.It is commonly called air potato, air yam or bulbil-bearing yam. Pollen and orbicule morphology of 35 species of Dioscorea L. (Dioscoreaceae), a large tropical and subtropical genus of some 400 species, were examined by Schols et al. The plant was identified by Mr. O. Herbalist Wadekar J, Sawant R, Honde B. Anthelmintic and antibacterial potential of, Venkata AS, Sai KD. Saheed SA, Illoh HC. MORPHOLOGY OF DIOSCOREA BULBIFERA L.21 Habit- A large glabrous climber growing 70 feet or more in length. This has led to the near extinction status of this plant in the southeastern part of Nigeria[5]. Dioscorea belongs to the monocotyledons, family Dioscoreaceae, subfamily Dioscoreoideae. Dioscorea burchellii Baker. SRG/FP/2010/4A). Anatomical characters can help in the identification of plant when morphological features are not distinct. Many species of Dioscorea are native to the Old World tropics and warm-temperature regions, some to tropical America. Basionym: ** Type: Without data (lectotype: Hermann, Parad. The observation of whitish callus at the nodal base of D. bulbifera with resultant effect in suppression of shoot growth may be attributed to the presence of NAA at 1.0 mg/L in the MS media. There is a dearth of published research on its invasive biological attributes including vine growth and biomass production by plants generated from bulbils. Bat. The useful diagnostic features included amphistomatic leaves, anomocytic and anisocytic stomata and smooth epidermal wall as shown in Figures 7 and ​and88. Naphthalene acetic acid had been reported to inhibit root elongation in a wide range of concentrations from 0.01 µmol/L to 1 µmol/L[32]. Mr. O. Comparative growth of micropropagated plantlets and seedlings of citrus varieties. et al. Photomicrograph (Ziess standard 25) of the epidermises was obtained using Motic camera mounted on a compound light microscope and attached to a Pentium IV computer. The most remarkable distinctive features of the taxa studied are: the presence of large fruits and raceme inflorescences inD. Pharmacognistic study of two medicinal species of. Introduction . Values are expressed as mean±SEM; 10 replicates per treatment. demonstrated the developmental differences in the cuticle of rose plants which occur in various micropropagation stages[45]. 1033. A: Nodal segments from green house with elongated shoot and leaves; B: Nodal segments from underground bulbil with elongated shoots and root proliferation. The authors are grateful to the management of National Centre for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology for providing technical support and an enabling environment during the study. To study the leaf epidermis of wild and micropropagated Dioscorea bulbifera Linn. 7 GUPTA D, SINGH J, 1989 Hydroxy-acetophenone derivatives from Dioscorea bulbifera. This indeed may explain the opening of stomata pore and possibly the reason for having larger average width of stomata sizes in the micropropagated plant [adaxial surface (7.68±0.38) µm and abaxial surface (6.14±0.46 µm)] compared to the wild. Therefore, in the case of shifting from in vitro to ex vitro cultures, the cutine is gradually synthesized, with the decrease relative humidity of the medium in which the plant lives. He discovered that species with alternative leaves, stems twining to the left and no bulbils contained diosgenin, whereas in species with opposite leaves, stems twining to the right and edible roots sapogenins were not present. The use of medicinal plants by nutraceutical, cosmeceutical and pharmaceutical industries is gaining more attention around the globe. The family Dioscoreaceae is a very important amylaceous food source found in tropical, subtropical, and temperate regions worldwide. Anomocytic stomata type reported in this work agrees with a previous report of anomocytic stomata in the order Dioscorales as in the case of Dioscorea hispida[40]. Subcultured nodal segments from N1 and N2 in same media composition (parameters of growth scored after 6 weeks). From the pharmaceutical point of view, the most important has been the finding that diosgenin production in tissue culture can be at least as high as in intact plants. phone: +2348063603103 . Most farmers regard the plant as weed competing with their farm products and clear them from the farm. Effect of plant growth regulator on. Dioscorea bulbifera. In this regard, the important microscopic features of the leaf of D. bulbifera (an important medicinal plant) such as anomocytic and anisocytic stomata, glandular trichomes with unicellular stalk and multicellular head, cuticular striations, presence of mucilage within epidermal cell and polygonal epidermal wall with smooth surfaces may serve as useful diagnostic features. Foliar microscopic features of adaxial epidermis of D. bulbifera. Nodal segments of D. bulbifera with elongated shoots. Citation: DIOSCOREA BULBIFERA Linnaeus, Sp. The variation in the floral morphology seen in the flowers, fruits, seeds and floral formulae of the investigated Dioscorea species, … Distinguishing Characteristics. 2016. A. Osiyemi is gratefully acknowledged for plant identification. Dioscorea bulbifera has paracytic and anisocytic stomata, with percentage frequency values of 87.60 and 12.40, respectively. Morphological characteristics are used to distinguish between different soils and they are used in classification of soils (Soil Survey Staff, 1998). 1753.. Tubérculos hipogeos y esféricos, 20 30 cm de diámetro, corteza café clara a amarillenta, lisa; bulbilos esféricos, 1 10 cm de diámetro; tallos levovolubles. The purified protein had molecular weight of 21 kDa. Later, Marker et al. In the same report, NAA (0.50 mg/L) along with BAP (2.0 mg/L) in MS medium induced formation of a maximum of eight spherical bulbils. Species mis-identification of herbal drugs due to numerous local names given to the same species or several species of crude drug with the same local name is common in Africa[16]. Responses of nodal segments of D. bulbifera in MS media supplemented with BAP (1.5 mg/L) and NAA (0.3 mg/L) were poor as 20% of growth was recorded with no shoot elongation and root formation after culturing for more than 6 weeks (Figure 3B). Abstract This biology is the 2nd in a series of Agriculture Handbooks dealing with the major species of yams. Origen. D bulbifera al 10%, 13% y 16% p/v. Although the development of successful in vitro propagation and storage protocols are reliable methods that make possible the establishment of extensive germplasm collections, plants cultivated in vitro present certain anatomical and physiological characteristics intrinsic to culture environment[8]. Rose leaf structure in relation to different stages of micropropagation. Yams are perennial herbaceous vines cultivated for the consumption of their starchy tubers in many temperate and tropical regions, especially in Africa, South America and the Caribbean, Asia, and Oceania. Many species have a low rate of flowering and fruit setting and poor seed germination. Other authors have described the biological properties of diosgenin. The effects of Yam (Dioscorea bulbifera) intake on small intestine morphology in streptozotocin‐induced diabetic rats Louise da S. Asht Experimental Nutrition Laboratory, College of Nutrition, Federal Fluminense University, Rua Mário Santos Braga, 30, Niterói, RJ, 24020‐140 Brazil Umeshkumar MD, Vilas ND, Diniesh MS. Natural gums and mucilage's in NDDS: applications and recent approaches. Similarly, explants with single node were excised from underground bulbil (12 weeks old) sprouting after dormancy break but kept indoor away from light source (the sun). Se le conoce como Varahi en sánscrito, kaachil en Malayalam y kand Dukkar en marathi. Dioscorea bulbifera is an edible yam species differentiated from every other species by the possession of specialized aerial bulbils, usually produced on the base of petioles (Martin, 1974). 73 Grafica 19 Concentración de alcohol para D. bulbifera al 10%, 13%, y 16% 74 Grafica 20 Concentración de alcohol para D. trífida al 10%, 13%, y 16% 75 En los años 50 del pasado siglo se estudió en Veracruz, México, una variedad de Dioscorea que se usaba como saponina o jabón para matar peces por la compañía Sintex. He analyzed the Japanese Dioscorea species, three of which did not contain sapogenins. Dioscorea bulbifera, Air Potato, Aerial Yam, Potato Yam, Bitter Yam Family. Wild plant had thicker lignified walls than the micropropagated plant and mass of mucilages were evenly spread in the epidermal cell of the wild but condensed and scattered in the in vitro propagated plant (Figures 7 and ​and88). The vines were excised from the mother plant with single node intact (used as explants). Phytotax. Ajayi GO, Kadiri AB, Egbedi ME, Oyeyemi OO. The tubers are edible and have often been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurvedic medicine to treat … This supports the thin cell wall observed in the micropropagated plant in this study and may explain the slight variation of anatomical features in the foliar epidermis when compared with the wild. Stauntonia hexaphylla (Lardizabalaceae, Japanese name mube) () is widely distributed in thickets in lowlands and foothills in warmer regions of Japan, Korea and China. Dioscorea bulbifera es una planta trepadora que puede alcanzar hasta seis metros o más en longitud. Morphology. (Feverfew), From Herb to Medicine: Forms of Herbal Products. Opening of stomata accounted for larger average stomata sizes of (7.68±0.38) µm and (6.14±0.46) µm on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces, respectively of the micropropagated plant compared to the wild. In vitro culture explants are exposed to specific artificial conditions which differ from those in the natural environment. Importance of leaf epidermal characters in the Asteraceae family. Observations on floral morphology of eight species ofDioscorea L., namely,D. The epidermal peel was rinsed (5×) to remove concentrated nitric acid and thereafter cleared with soft Carmel hair brush to dissociate tissue remains from the surfaces. Dioscorea hoffa Cordem. Dioscorea bulbifera is a serious invader of various ecosystems in Florida, where plants generated by its two morphotypes climb aggressively and smother supporting vegetation. Essiett UA, Bala DN, Agbakahi JA. NPs synthesis was completed within 5 h showing a prominent peak at 540 nm. dumetorum (Kunth) Pax,D. Pharmacognostic evaluation of the leaves of, El-Sayed ZI, Ateya AM, Fekry M. Macro and micromorphological study of the leaf, stem, flower and root of, Sonibare MA, Jayeola AA, Egunyomi A, Murata J. germplasm. Consequently, the plants are destroyed and are not eaten. 1). rotundata Poir. The ePub format uses eBook readers, which have several "ease of reading" features 8 IRELAND C, SCHWABE W, GOURSEY D, 1981 The occurrence of batatasins in the Dioscoreaceae. For each treatment, 10 replicates were used and all the experiments were repeated three times. (D. bulbifera) belongs to the family Dioscoreaceae assigned to the order Dioscorales. The medium was supplemented with 30 g/L sucrose and gelled with 5 g/L agar. Leaf anatomy of orchids micrpropagated with different silicon concentrations. Thereafter, they were soaked in 70% alcohol for 10 min and finally treated with 3% sodium hypochloride for 15 min and then rinsed thoroughly by intermittent shaking with sterilized distilled water (3×). Diosgenin content in Dioscorea roots is 4% to 6% of dry weight. Microscopic evaluation is an indispensable tool for identification of medicinal herbs and is one of the essential parameter in modern monograph. Slight variations included thick cuticular wall with closed stomata in wild plant compared to thin walled opened stomata in the in vitro plant. Dioscorea bulbifera Linn. The growth factors used were number of leaves, callus formation, shoot number, number of nodal segments (buds) on shoots and shoot length. Dhawan et al. Dioscorea bulbifera is a potent medicinal plant used in both Indian and Chinese traditional medicine owing to its rich phytochemical diversity. Bulbils occur in the leaf axis of numerous species of Dioscorea and contribute greatly to vegetative propagation. Dioscorea bulbifera is an evergreen Perennial Climber growing to 10 m (32ft) by 0.5 m (1ft 8in) at a fast rate. Dioscorea is a genus of over 600 species of flowering plants in the family Dioscoreaceae, native throughout the tropical and warm temperate regions of the world. Herein we report the promises of Dioscorea bulbifera and its bioactive principle, diosgenin as novel α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitor. Comparison of mean of parameters of growth using independent student t-test for each column showed no statistical significance at P>0.05. In recent years great advances in research on the Dioscorea species have been observed. Morphology of flood plain soils Morphology deals with spatial distribution pattern of the soil characteristics. Shah GL, Gopal BV. Multiple root formation with single elongated shoot and no shoot and root formation. It is well known that most histological traits of plant are under the control of environmental conditions. MS medium was used as the basal medium for shoot and root proliferation. They also contain the poisonous alkaloid dioscorine, and therefore may be eaten only when boiled or roasted. Produce tubérculos basales; sin embargo, los “bulbillos” (o tubérculos aéreos) que crecen en la base de sus hojas son el producto alimenticio más importante. The vast majority of the species are tropical, with only a few species extending into temperate climates. Plant has two types of storage organs. It is therefore imperative to consider conserving this medicinally useful plant genetic resource. According to Kaul and Staba (1968), diosgenin is obtained commercially, principally from the tubers of D. composita, D. floribunda, D. tepinapensis, D. prazeri, D. deltoidea, D. sylvatica and D. belizensis. Comparison of growth responses to auxin 1-naphthalene acetic acid and the ethylene precussor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid in maize seedling root. Similarly, the foliar epidermal anatomy of Dioscorea rotundata, Dioscorea cayenensis, Dioscorea dumetorum, and Dioscorea alata was reported to consist of anomocytic stomata only for the four species of Dioscorea studied[41]. Singh IP, Parthasarathy VA, Handique PJ. This is why the viscoamylography and the morphology of native starch from yam congo were studied. The primary fea-tures that can help in distinguishing the species include the nature of periderm, presence or absence of pericyclic 600 species and is divisible into numerous sections according to stem twining, leaf morphology, inflorescences, seed wings, bulbil formation, tuber morphology and chemical content. Post‐Graduate Programe in Food Science and Technology, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, , 23890‐000 Seropédica, RJ, Brazil. Dioscorea belongs to the monocotyledons, family Dioscoreaceae, subfamily Dioscoreoideae. Estudio etnobotánico de la papa de aire Comparative qualitative and quantitative features of foliar epidermis of wild and micropropagated D. bulbifera. It comprises ca. In the present review its habit, habitat, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological properties are discussed. ex De Wild. Methods Circular No. Dioscorea bulbifera, also known as air potato, has been cultivated as food crop mainly in tropical countries in Asia and Australia. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very acid and very alkaline soils. Dioscorea caillei A. Chev. Callus, shoot, leaf and root formation from nodal segments of D. bulbifera (parameters of growth scored after 6 weeks). This may be caused by conversion of endogenous precursors by the enzymes liberated during tuber homogenization. New sources for important sapogenins have been indicated. In the 1970’s, Pal and Sharma (1979) induced mutations by X-irradiation in D. bulbifera and D. alata with subsequent changes of steroidal sapogenin and alkaloid content in the species. At the moment, in vitro technique has found increasing significance as a complementary means to in situ plant conservation, especially for vegetatively propagated and recalcitrant seed-producing species[7]. Pl. ... Observations on the floral morphology of some Dioscorea species (Dioscoreaceae) in Nigeria. The cultures were incubated at (27±1) °C with a photoperiod of 16 h at an intensity of 10-20 µmol m−2s−1. *: P<0.05. Similarly, MS medium supplemented with NAA (1.0 mg/L) and BAP (0.5-1.0 mg/L) was reported as the best concentration for multiple shoot bud induction in Dioscorea opposita. Dioscorea belongs to the monocotyledons, family Dioscoreaceae, subfamily Dioscoreoideae. Previous workers have reported that phytochemicals including saponins, polyphenols and mucilage are the likely active components of Dioscorea species[35]–[37]. Mubo A. Sonibare and Adedapo A. Adeniran. Micropropagation of an Indian ginger (. et al. Similarly, introduction of 6 weeks old cultured plant from MS media+BAP (1.0 mg/L)+NAA (0.2 mg/L)+cysteine (20 mg/L) in fresh MS media supplemented with NAA (2.0 mg/L)+cysteine (20 mg/L) resulted in 50% production of single nodal bulbil with aerial root attached to the bulbil and profuse whitish callusing at the base of the nodal vine after 8 weeks of culturing (Figure 5B). In Southwest Nigeria, D. bulbifera grows under the shade that contains a substrate composed of high levels of organic material and often over the tops of low-lying vegetation and into tree canopies. andD. Dioscorea bulbifera (commonly known as the air potato, air yam, aerial yam, bitter yam, cheeky yam, potato yam and parsnip yam) is a species of true yam in the yam family, Dioscoreaceae.It is native to Africa, Asia and northern Australia. Numerous studies which have been carried out on Dioscorea species in laboratories interested in medicinal plants prompted the question as how to obtain diosgenin without cultivation of the plants in the field or how to regenerate them to provide a large number of plants. *N1: 12 weeks old nodal segment of D. bulbifera obtained from green house; **N2: 12 weeks old nodal segment obtained from underground bulbils of D. bulbifera following dormancy break. It contains detailed information on Dioscorea bulbifera, one of the most common and widespread yams of the tropics, which is known as air-potato yam because of its edible aerial tubers. The presence of mass of mucilage within the epidermal cell and the presence of glandular unicellular trichomes with multicellular head are indicative of the medicinal lodgments of bioactive principles in the plant and in a way may justify its use in traditional medicine[33]. The term, however, should not be confused with the sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (Convolvulaceae), which is also known as yam in the USA. Thus, the D. bulbifera plants regenerated from cryopreserved embryogenic tissues were genetically stable at the molecular, biochemical and morphological levels. This work was financially supported by University of Ibadan Senate Research Grant (Grant No. Dioscorea bulbifera is a vigorously twining, long-stemmed perennial vine with non-spiny stems to 20 m or more in length, freely branching above; internodes round or slightly angled in cross section and they twine counter-clockwise. Selections from the book: “Medicinal and Aromatic Plants II”, 1989. Originaria de las zonas tropicales de Asia y África.Es una especie invasora en muchas áreas tropicales, incluyendo La Florida en los Estados Unidos.. Características. SRG/FP/2010/4A). They were rinsed in distilled water until explants were clean and free from Tween 20. Murashige T, Skoog F. A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassay with tobacco tissue culture. rotundata Poir. Dioscorea burkilliana J. Miège. Thin cuticle seems to be a common feature for all in vitro cultivated plant species. Fresh leaves of wild and in vitro cultivated plant of D. bulbifera cut in the standard median position and then soaked in concentrated nitric acid for 3-5 h in a covered Petri dish were used for epidermal study. A: Eight weeks old callus from nodal explants of D. bulbifera; B: Profuse whitish callus with shoot suppression. the display of certain parts of an article in other eReaders. Leaf micro-characters can be used for distinguishing crude drugs even when they are fragmented[10]. It... Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz Bip. Stem-Twining to the left, unarmed, often with bulbils in the leaf-axils. Micro morphological characters are indispensable in the identification and authentication of medicinal plants samples. Shoot and root proliferation were scored and measured after 6 weeks of culturing. Adedeji O, Jewoola OA. In the present study, MS medium+BAP (0.05 mg/L)+NAA (0.01 mg/L) produced the highest mean root length of (27.00±1.25) mm with an elongated single shoot of mean length (38.00±11.09) mm (Figure 2A, Table 1) representing 70% explants response after 8 weeks of culturing. Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Yam (Dioscorea bulbífera) Starch: Effect on Morphology and Functional Properties Cristiany Oliveira Bernardo. More than 80% shoot regeneration and formation of 10%-30% whitish-brown callus were observed within 3 weeks. The same authors established that double-labelled cholesterol was converted by D. floribunda to diosgenin. Preparation of epidermal imprints of living plant organs by the use of non toxic mucilage and latex. Keragaman uwi-uwian tersebut terlihat pada arah lilitan batang (searah jarum jam ... Diversity and characteristic morphology of yam (Dioscorea sp.). 1033. Ahmed Z, Chishti MZ, Johri RK, Bhagat A. Antihyperglycemic and antidyslipidemic activity of aqueous extract of, Wang J, Ji L, Liu H, Wang Z. Dioscorea heterophylla Roxb. Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. The plants are usually climbers, with tubers or rhizomes at the base. Introduction. Among petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, methanol and 70% ethanol (v/v) extracts of bulbs of D. bulbifera, ethyl acetate extract showed highest inhibition upto 72.06 ± 0.51% and 82.64 ± 2.32% against α-amylase and α-glucosidase respectively. NAA, an auxin, can effectively induce shoot emergence when combined with an adenine derivative (BAP). La Dioscorea bulbifera que crece de forma silvestre puede ser tóxica, En cuanto a su valor medicinal, en algunos países la Dioscorea bulbífera es cultivada para satisfacer la demanda de la industria farmacéutica, porque contienen el esteroide llamado diosgenina, principal componente de … hirtiflora Benth.,D. Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Yam (Dioscorea bulbífera) Starch: Effect on Morphology and Functional Properties Cristiany Oliveira Bernardo. Pharmacognostic studies of the leaves and stem of, Yasmiri G, Khan MA, Shaheen N, Hayat MQ. The diagnostic features obtained in the study could serve as a basis for proper identification for quality control for standardization of the medicinal plant. La Dioscorea bulbifera, o “Patata aérea”, es una planta trepadora originaria de las zonas tropicales de Asia y África que pertenece a la familia Dioscoreaceae. Dioscorea bulbifera. et al. The air humidity in culture vessels is very high ranging from 95%-100% and plant response is to enhance water diffusion into the cells, with subsequent increase in both parenchymatic cell sizes and intercellular spaces. The stems range from thin (1-milli- A & B: Wild plant; C & D: In vitro plant (400×). Foundation Project: Supported by University of Ibadan Senate Research Grant (Grant No. Johansson et al. are presented. Post‐Graduate Programe in Food Science and Technology, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, , 23890‐000 Seropédica, RJ, Brazil. Some Dioscorea species play an important role in pharmacy. The techniques utilized in this study were in accordance with methodology previously reported in literature (Saheed and Illoh, 2010; Smillie and Khan, 2010; Santos et al., 2008). Dioscorea bulbifera (scientific name: Dioscorea bulbifera L., also known as air potato, air yam, bitter yam, cheeky yam, potato yam, Chinese Pinyin: Huang Yao Zi, Simplified Chinese: 黄药子, 黄独, 木药子, 大苦, 赤药, 红药子), is a species of perennial vine in genus Dioscorea … (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); February 9, 2015 A potential plasmid-curing agent, 8-epidiosbulbin E acetate, from. It is important to note that using tissue culture technique the problem of freeing the yams from virus diseases can also be solved. Adaptive responses to progressive drought stress in two poplar species originating from different attitude. It is possible that the combination of BAP (1.0 mg/L)+NAA (0.20 mg/L)1+cysteine (20 mg/L) in this study was responsible for shoot regeneration as control without these plant growth regulators failed to grow after observation in culture medium for more than 6 weeks. In this paper, we report on the rapid synthesis of silver nanoparticles by reduction of aqueous Ag(+) ions using D. bulbifera tuber extract. It is named by the monk Charles Plumier after the ancient Greek physician and botanist Dioscorides However, the clinical application has been limited for its hepatotoxicity. Healthy vines with active buds were collected from 12 weeks old plants of D. bulbifera raised and maintained in the green house. Food tuber yams include D. alata, D. bulbifera, D. rotundata, D. cayenensis, D. esculenta and D. trifida. Dioscorea bulbifera L. (Family: Dioscoreaceae) commonly known as ‘air potato’ is an important edible medicinal plant use to treat a wide range of diseases. Introduction of excised nodal segments from 6 weeks old plant in fresh MS media+BAP (1.0 mg/L)+NAA (0.2 mg/L)+cysteine (2.0 mg/L) resulted in formation of a single bulbil with aerial root after 4 weeks of culturing (Figure 5A). Recent advances in the areas of diosgenin biosynthesis in tissue culture indicate great scope for obtaining higher yield of steroidal sapogenins in tissue culture, but also for encouraging more interdisciplinary studies in this field. available on Dioscorea bulbifera and its management in Florida. Thus, the D. bulbifera plants regenerated from cryopreserved embryogenic tissues were genetically stable at the molecular, biochemical and morphological levels. Futhermore, the continuing cell enlargement retards the development of secondary walls (lignification and cutinization) resulting in thinner cell wall, reduced deposition of epicuticular waxes and poor mechanical tissue formation[44]. Foliar anatomy and histochemistry in seven species of, Bejoy M, Dan M, Anish NP, Anjana RG, Nair BJ, Radhika K, et al. Routinely, 10-15 mL each of molten medium was dispensed into sterile (20×150) mm culture tubes. The greatest development in sapogenin utilization has taken place in Mexico. preussii Pax,D. Selvaraj and Subhas-Chander (1980) observed that fresh tuber homogenates of D. floribunda incubated at 37 °C for 24 h contained more diosgenin than control and dry tuber homogenates. Yam is the common name for some plant species in the genus Dioscorea (family Dioscoreaceae) that form edible tubers. Plant has two types of … Selain itu terdapat pula Dioscorea bulbifera, Dioscorea pentaphylla, dan Dioscorea nummularia. Organs of an individual plant living under stress undergo adaptive changes which determine their more effective function[43]. A: Formation of single bulbil with aerial root; B: Single bulbil at the nodal base. The leaves are shiny green, alternate with a long petiole. Earlier workers reported shoot regeneration of 42%-75% in Dioscorea rotundata when cultured in MS medium supplemented with NAA (0.1 µmol/L)+BAP (0.20 µmol/L) and shoot plantlet regeneration of 60%-82% obtained in media made of NAA (0.05 µmol/L)+BAP (0.20 µmol/L) or BAP (0.46 µmol/L)+kinetin (0.50 µmol/L) in Dioscorea alata[29]. Department of Botany, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria., Tel: +23408023255482, E-mail: *Corresponding author: Dr. Mubo A. Sonibare, Senior Lecturer, PhD, Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. The mean±SE, minimum and maximum values were calculated for all variables. Ivanova T, Gussev C, Bosseva Y, Stoeva T. Soares JD, Pasqual M, De Araujo AG, De Castro EM, Pereira FJ, Braga FT. Subculturing of nodal segments of D. bulbifera obtained from Figure 3A and ​and3B3B after 6 weeks of growth in the same media resulted in formation of multiple shoots, 3.60±0.87 [mean length (49.20±5.71) mm] within 6 weeks of culturing, which was higher compared to multiple shoots, 2.40±0.40 [mean length of (33.60±7.48) mm] (Table 2) obtained from excised nodal segments from green house (Figure 4A and ​and4B4B). Abstract. The Petri dish was placed on a hot water bath until bubbles were noticed on leaves which signified readiness of epidermal peel removal. Joly et al. Other authors found traces of diosgenin in D. bulbifera. The studies of Dioscorea were at first prompted by economic reasons, mostly for the species used as food. However, the present anatomical studies of the foliar epidermises of D. bulbifera revealed not only anomocytic stomata type but anisocytic. Healthy nodal segments from the green house and underground bulbil grown indoor. Flowers are dioecious and seeds often winged. (C,D) Starch granules of Dioscorea bulbifera tuber (AusMus 1/271; Vanuatu). Morphological, anatomical and phytochemical investigations are the integral part of herbal science. Anatomical study, petiole, leaf, tuber, root and flower of, Aina OD, Atumeyi S. Foliar epidermal anatomy of four species of. The presence of anisocytic stomata in D. bulbifera together with anomocytic stomata may serve as distinguishing character for its identification from other Dioscorea species. The main determinant factors are high relative air humidity, air composition and culture media content. It is named by the monk Charles Plumier after the ancient Greek physician and botanist Dioscorides Dioscorea bulbifera is a potent medicinal plant used in both Indian and Chinese traditional medicine owing to its rich phytochemical diversity. PMID: 12819828 [Indexed for MEDLINE] Publication Types: 600 species and is divisible into numerous sections according to stem twining, leaf morphology, inflorescences, seed wings, bulbil formation, tuber morphology and chemical content. are presented.The most remarkable distinctive features of the taxa studied are: the presence of large fruits and raceme inflorescences inD. Herein, we report the rapid synthesis of novel nanoparticles by D. bulbifera tuber extract (DBTE). Growth responses of micropropagated D. bulbifera were observed on Murashige Skoog medium supplemented with 6-benzylamino purine (1.0 mg/L)+α-naphthaleneacetic acid (0.2 mg/L)+cysteine (20 mg/L) using nodal segments as explants. Folia Geobot. Disclaimer: ITIS taxonomy is based on the latest scientific consensus available, and is provided as a general reference source for interested parties. 72 Grafica 18 Concentración de microorganismos (millones/ml) para D trífida al 10%13% y 16% p/v. The species have been the object of numerous studies by botanists, chemists and pharmacists. Dioscorea hofika Jum. As with many species within the genus Dioscorea, D. bulbifera does not support its own weight to any great height and in order to capture sunlight, this species has evolved to climb by twining on other plants (Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2008). Air potato is an aggressive, herbaceous vine that can attain lengths of 65 feet in a single growing season. Clockwise twinning direction was reported in D. bulbifera and measures up to 12 m[2]. Comparative micromorphological study of wild and micropropagated, China Humanity Technology Publishing House, Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. Natural Area Weeds: Air Potato (Dioscorea bulbifera) 3 Three other introduced species of Dioscorea may be encountered in Florida: Chinese yam (D. polystachya), Zanzibar yam (D. sansibarensis), and wild yam (D. villosa).None of these is considered to be invasive. 600 species and is divisible into numerous sections according to stem twining, leaf morphology, inflorescences, seed wings, bulbil formation, tuber morphology and chemical content. Climate Top of page. Phytochemistry 20:1569-1571. Dioscorea bulbifera L. Accepted Name Air potato Plantae > Tracheophyta > Liliopsida > Dioscoreales > Dioscoreaceae > Dioscorea > Dioscorea bulbifera L. Slight variations included closed stomata pore in the wild and open in the in vitro cultivated plants, cuticularization of epidermal walls was observed in the adaxial and abaxial surfaces of the wild whereas it was noticed only on the abaxial surfaces of the in vitro plant. Dioscorea alata (ñame), D. rotundata, D. esculenta, D. trifida y D. bulbifera (2). bulbifera bulbifera dioscorea bulbifera bulbils bulbifera fern bulbifera image bulbifera tuber extract bulbifera food bulbifera family bulbifera scientific name bulbifera yam. Other Chinese species, D. althaeoides, D. colettii and D. septemloba, were the object of studies by Lou and Chen (1983) and Liu and Chen (1984), in which they isolated and identified diosgenin. Dioscorea bulbifera L., Sp. Coursey (1967) mentioned 53 Dioscorea species containing sapogenin, and a high percentage of diosgenin content (more than 2%) was found in 23 species ineluding D. composita, D. deltoidea and D. floribunda. Studies have verified that D. bulbifera is effective in treating a wide range of diseases, such as pharyngitis, goitre, pyogenic skin infections, orchitis and cancer. A: Multiple shoots obtained from green house; B: Multiple shoots obtained from underground bulbil. Leaves 9-25 x 8-23 cm, ovate-suborbicular, base deeply cordate, apex acuminate to shortly caudate, membranous, glabrous, basally 9-11-ribbed; petiole to 20 cm long. 1698. INTRODUCTION Tropical root and tuber crops are a subsidiary staple to over 20% of the world’s population occupying an important position after cereals and grain legumes (Orkwor et al., 1998). V. Biology of Dioscorea bulbifera ... Taxonomy and morphology The genus Dioscorea, published in 1753 by Linnaeus (Genera Plantarum), was named after the Greek physician Pedinios Dioscorides, who was a medical officer in the Roman army at the time andD. Dioscorea bulbifera (comúnmente conocido como la patata aire, ñame aire, ñame aérea, ñame amargo, ñame descarado, ñame papa y ñame chirivía) es una especie de la verdadera ñame en el ñame familia, Dioscoreaceae.Es originaria de África, Asia y el norte de Australia. The flowers are pollinated by Wind, Insects. In view of the biological and medicinal importance of D. bulbifera, and the report of its near extinction in southeast region of Nigeria, the present study was designed to compare qualitative and quantitative micro-morphological characteristics of the wild and micropropagated plants which may be employed for correcting crude drug identification.
2020 dioscorea bulbifera morphology