Weed Technology, 21(2), 567-570. is one of the most difficult weeds to control in soybean ( Glycine max (L.) Merr.) For sweet potato, crop yields have been reduced 36 to 81% at densities of 0.5 to 6.5 A. palmeri plants/m row (Meyers et al., 2010). [12] The request was denied due to unacceptable risks to drinking water. Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) interference in soybeans (Glycine max). More on that in a moment. Nematodes affecting A. palmeri include Meloidogyne incognita, M. arenaria and Rotylenchulis reniformis (Ward et al., 2013). Various rodents and birds, including Charadrius vociferus and ducks, consume the seeds (Ward et al., 2013). Tucson, Arizona, USA: The University of Arizona Press. An illustrated flora of the northern … It is therefore advisable not to graze livestock in areas predominantly infested with A. palmeri. De Andrade Jr ER , Cavenaghi AL, Guimarães SC, 2015. In: World Flora Online : World Flora Online Consortium.www.worldfloraonline.org, Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. The implementation of Zero Tolerance areas is recommended for the total eradication of A. palmeri (Barber et al., 2015; Crow et al., 2015; CropLife, 2019; EPPO, 2019). Amaranthus palmeri is reported as one of the most competitive weeds of crops in the United States (Morgan et al., 2001; Norsworthy et al., 2008; Webster and Gray, 2015). Interference of Palmer amaranth in corn. Interference and control of glyphosate-resistant and -susceptible Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) populations under greenhouse conditions. A. palmeri can grow in almost any soil, but prefers well drained ones. A. palmeri is an annual species with a high reproductive potential. Amaranthus palmeri is an annual herb native to arid and desert habitats of northern Mexico and the southwest of the USA (Ward et al., 2013). Amaranthus palmeri . Zero tolerance: a community-based program for glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth management. USDA Nutrient Database", "Cereals, whole wheat hot natural cereal, cooked with water, without salt. Evolution, 11(1), 11-31. The landowner worked with a North Dakota State … Improved sanitary measures need to be implemented, including cleaning machinery to prevent seed dispersal between fields. The Atlas of Florida Plants provides a source of information for the distribution of plants within the state and taxonomic information. [16] Palmer amaranth in particular is highly competitive. In: Weed Technology [Symposium on managing herbicide resistant weeds, 10 December, 1998, St. Paul, MN, USA], 13(3) . The resistance of some biotypes to various herbicides has been an important factor for the spread of A. palmeriis. Populations in the eastern United States are probably naturalized. Weed Science, 35(3), 328-332. Further, ABA content was significantly higher and GA content significantly lower in seeds from shaded (47% reduction in light) than in those from nonshaded (0% reduction in light) plants ( Jha et al. Circular Técnica, Rondonópolis, Brazil: Instituto Mato-grossense do Algodão (IMAmt). Published on the internet. Desc: Amaranthus palmeri is a species of edible flowering plant in the amaranth genus.It has several common names, including carelessweed, dioecious amaranth, Palmer's amaranth, Palmer amaranth, and Palmer's pigweed. 15 (4), 595-606. Palmer amaranth considerably exceeded common waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis), redroot pigweed (A. retroflexus), and other Amaranthus species in height, dry weight, and leaf area in comparative growth analyses conducted under field conditions in Kansas (Horak and Loughin, 2000) and Missouri (Sellers et al, 2003). Various countries are making available early warning documentation to educate the general public about the implications of an invasion of A. palmeri. Menges, R. M., 1987. The species is monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and is pollinated by Wind. The seeds have been reported to be viable after 12 years of burial in the soil, although more than half of the seeds will lose viability after 18 months (EPPO, 2019). Weed Technology, 24(4), 495-503. doi: 10.1614/WT-D-09-00057.1, Ministerio de Ganadería, Agricultura y Pesca, 2019. Bracts: of pistillate flowers with long-excurrent midrib, 4-6 mm, longer than tepals, apex acuminate or mucronulate; of staminate flowers, 4 mm, equalling or longer than outer tepals, apex long-acuminate. Fayettville, Arkansas, USA: University of Arkansas Cooperative Extension Service.https://www.uaex.edu/publications/pdf/FSA2177.pdf, Berger, S. T., Ferrell, J. View abstract. Some cultural and sanitary measures recommended for the eradication of A. palmeri include: crop rotations, alternating herbicide usage; reducing the space between the planted crops and using crop varieties with a high reproductive rate. In these conditions, many herbicides break down over time and Palmer amaranth will keep growing. Encyclopedia of Life. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. A., Rowland, D. L., Webster, T. M., 2015. It is important to avoid the use of machinery in areas where plants of A. palmeri are already producing seeds (EPPO, 2019). Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA. The main objective is to completely eliminate the species seedbank. Native to the Sonoran Desert and the lower Rio Grande Valley (Ehleringer, 1983; Keely, 1987), Palmer amaranth readily invades croplands in hot climates. Some ant species that forage the seeds include Pheidole ridicula, P. absurda and Solenopsis invicta (Ward et al., 2013; Encyclopedia of Life, 2019). Group G/9 herbicides are known as EPSP synthase inhibitors (Inhibition of EPSP synthase). The genus name is derived from the combination of two Greek words "amarantos," meaning "unfading, undecaying" and “anthos” for “flower” or "never failing flowers", as a description of the Amaranthus species' showy bracts (Steckel, 2007). Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) is an aggressive, invasive weed native to the desert regions of the southwest United States and northern Mexico. These particular biotypes are known to have resistance … It is also reported in rural areas, streambanks, disturbed areas, abandoned plots, drainage and irrigation channels, roadsides, railroads, areas used for livestock, public gardens and cultivated fields (Ward et al., 2013; Iamonico and Mokni, 2017; Encyclopedia of Life, 2019). The Atlas of Florida Plants provides a source of information for the distribution of plants within the state and taxonomic information. Amaranthus caudatus L., Amaranthus cruentus L., Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. frequently cultivated as ornamentals, occasionally escaping from cultivation. Amaranthus palmeri is a ANNUAL growing to 0.9 m (3ft). Stems erect, branched, usually (0.3-)0.5-1.5(-3) m; proximal branches often ascending. In: Flora of North America North of Mexico St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1, GRIIS, 2019. A. palmeri is also an important host of the tarnished plant bug (Lygus lineolaris), which is a major pest of cotton in the United States (Steckel, 2007). Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson (Amaranto di Palmer) USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Britton, N.L., and A. Atlas of Living Australia. J Cotton Sci 12:306–310 Google Scholar Seeds can also be fed to cattle (Kindscher et al., 2018) although the high levels of nitrates in the adult plant can be poisonous to livestock, especially cattle and pigs (Burrows and Tyrl, 2013). In: Encyclopedia of Life . Amaranthus palmeri, native to the southwestern desert region of the United States, is a C 4, summer annual plant, and is among the top five most troublesome weeds in most other southeastern states. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm, Alien plants of Belgium, 2019. In: EPPO Global database Paris, France: EPPO.https://gd.eppo.int/. [ 38 ] To support our efforts please browse our store (books with medicinal info, etc.). There was a significant reduction in the number of pollen grains found in acetolyzed adults … The leaves, stems and seeds of Palmer amaranth, like those of other amaranths, are edible and highly nutritious. Madagascar is also susceptible, as are countries of central and eastern Asia, the Middle East and the Caribbean. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. Plan for eradication of the Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) in the Republic of South Africa. Manual of the alien plants of Belgium. The seeds retain a high percent of viability after being consumed by birds (De Vlaming and Proctor, 1968). Brown. Pistillate flowers: tepals 1.7-3.8 mm, apex acuminate, mucronulate; style branches spreading; stigmas 2(-3). Euro+Med, 2019. Report FSA2177-PD-3-2015N. Weed Technology, 22(1), 108-113. doi: 10.1614/WT-07-128.1. Amaranthus palmeri is used by indigenous populations in the United States, including the Cocopa, Navajo, Pima, Yuma and Mohave (Steckel, 2007; Ward et al., 2013). [6] For example, for cotton fields, residual herbicides such as linuron, diuron or flumioxazin activated through precipitation or irrigation are used. It is native to most of the southern half of North America. A. palmeri is an annual species (Ward et al., 2013). Catkin-like cymes of densely packed flowers grow in summer or autumn. According to Burrows and Tyrl (2013), deaths are usually limited to ruminants especially cattle, with pigs tending to develop only symptoms of sublethal poisoning. [7][8][9] Glyphosate-resistant pigweed not only dominates in cotton fields, but also has wide-ranging effects on other crops and productions. These publications usually give information on how to recognise the species, how to alert the local authorities about its presence and provide instructions on the eradication means available (De Andrade et al., 2015; Barber et al., 2015). A. palmeri has high genetic diversity and is capable of developing herbicide resistance over a period of a few years (Chandi et al., 2013; Ward et al., 2013). This species was reported About 75-85% of the seeds produced each year are lost either to predation or over low temperatures during the winter. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. This species is reported as causing serious impacts to the growth and yield of various crops, cotton, maize, soybean and sweet potatoes being among the most affected. At higher spatial scales, the implementation of coordinated screening efforts at multiple stages in the feed machinery transport chains is needed to detect contamination by seeds of A. palmeri (Davis et al., 2015; EPPO, 2019). Arts 12: 274 1877. https://gd.eppo.int/. Amer. Weed Science, 51(6), 869-875. doi: 10.1614/P2002-127, Iamonico, D., El-Mokni, R., 2017. Weed Science, 63(4), 928-935. doi: 10.1614/WS-D-15-00062.1. Dispersal of aquatic organisms: viability of seeds recovered from the droppings of captive killdeer and mallard ducks. A comparative analysis of alien plant species along the Romanian Black Sea coastal area. There are several reports of the dispersal of A. palmeri to areas or countries through contaminated grains or agricultural practices (Ward et al., 2013; De Andrade et al., 2015; EPPO, 2019). PFAF, 2019. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. Change ). Weed Technology, 15(3), 408-412. doi: 10.1614/0890-037X(2001)015[0408:CIOPAA]2.0.CO;2, Morichetti S, Cantero JJ, Núñez C, Barboza GE, Espinar LA, Amuchastegui A, Ferrell J, 2013. Amaranthus palmeri antigen. The plant is fast-growing and highly competitive. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Although A. palmeri is not shade tolerant, the species has shown morphological acclimation to shading (Jha et al., 2008). In: Tropicos database. A. palmeri has been reported as spreading through agricultural practices (Ward et al., 2013). 2017. No specific environmental services are reported for A. palmeri, other than seeds being consumed by animals and being used as forage (Burrows and Tyrl, 2013; Ward et al., 2013). amaranthus palmeri in tamil 10 October People decorated their homes and trees with paper flags; ritual races, processions, dances, songs, prayers, and finally human sacrifices were held. Journal of Coastal Conservation, 15(4), 595-606. [10] The male produces the pollen and the female plant produces the seed. Title Flora of N. America Publication Author Website A. palmeri is a C4 summer annual species that grows best in open sunny places, warm temperatures and is drought tolerant (Ehleringer, 1983; Ward et al., 2013). DOI:10.4102/abc.v47i1.2100, Kistner E J, Hatfield J L, 2018. Its success is attributed to a combination of high fecundity, fast and season-long germination, fast initial growth, high rates of photosynthesis, phenotypic plasticity, the vast amount of seeds produced per plant (up to 600,000), the ability to produce a large biomass and the development of herbicide resistance, including to the widely used glyphosate. Amaranthus palmeri is an annual herb native to northwestern Mexico, the south of California into New Mexico and Texas in the United States (Ward et al., 2013). Human translations with examples: சிறுகீரை, arakkeerai, arai keerai, karibani keerai. Although the seeds have no wind dispersal adaptations, strong winds and hurricanes are reported as dispersing the species over some areas of Texas (Menges, 1987). Major crop producing countries with climates suitable for the establishment of A. palmeri are Australia, Nigeria, Ethiopia and Tanzania. Amaranthus palmeri is reported as causing allergies (PFAF, 2019). Amaranthus palmeri, a second record for Africa and notes on A. sonoriensis nom. The chromosome number reported for A palmeri is n = 17 (Reveal and Spellenberg, 1976). Weed Science, 47(3), 305-309. The female spikes of A. palmeri are taller and pricklier than A. tuberculatus, A. retroflexus and A. hybridus (Minnesota Department of Agriculture, 2019). Populations in the eastern United States are probably … A. palmeri also interferes with the mechanical harvest of crops (Norsworthy et al., 2008). Amaranthus palmeri is a species of edible flowering plant in the amaranth genus. EPPO Global database. A passage from Wild Edible Plants of New Mexico: After Amaranth has gone to seed (late summer–fall), strip the dried seed spikes from the top of each plant. Central and local government agencies and institutions have published several reports to create awareness about the problems that A. palmeri presents to agriculture. Weed Technology, 27(1), 85-91. doi: 10.1614/WT-D-11-00144.1, Morgan, G. D., Baumann, P. A., Chandler, J. M., 2001. doi: 10.4102/abc.v47i1.2100, Jha, P., Norsworthy, J. K., Riley, M. B., Bielenberg, D. G., Bridges, W., Jr., 2008. Three subgenera are recognised: Acnida, Amaranthus, and Albersia (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2019). Amaranthus palmeri in Kew Science Plants of the World online. http://ww2.bgbm.org/EuroPlusMed, Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2019. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm, Alien plants of Belgium, 2019. First southeastern U.S. records of the western heteropterans Prionosoma podopioides (Pentatomidae) and Aufeius impressicollis (Rhopalidae), with a review of distribution and host plants. Some amaranth species are cultivated as leaf vegetables, pseudocereals, and ornamental plants.Most of the Amaranthus species are summer annual weeds and are commonly referred to as pigweeds. World Flora Online. Wats.) It can grow from 2 to 5 inches (51 to 127 mm) in three days, or less. [1] Palmer amaranth is among the "top five most troublesome weeds" in the southeast of the United States and has already evolved resistances to dinitroaniline herbicides and acetolactate synthase inhibitors . In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Seeds dark reddish brown to brown, 1-1.2 mm diam., shiny. 1913. Since the initial report of glyphosate-resistant (GR) Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson in 2006, resistant populations have been reported in 28 states. Maximum seed germination is at temperatures near 30°C, declining with higher temperatures (Guo and Al-Khatib, 2003; EPPO, 2019). St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. Saunders RM, Becker R, 1984. Sridevi Nakka, Amar S Godar, … 2017).Palmer amaranth was rated as the most troublesome weed by the Weed … The plant is self-fertile. Snodgrass, G. L., Scott, W. P., Smith, J. W., 1984. Crop yield reduction is reported for soybean up to 68% with A. palmeri density of 10 plants/m of row length (Klingaman and Oliver, 1994), and for cotton of up to 92% at 0.9 plants/m2 (Rowland et al., 1999). Grain sorghum is the sixth most common crop in the United States, being grown on 1.2 million ha in 2016 ().As with all crop production, competition with weeds is among the top yield reducers for grain sorghum (Thompson et al. Amaranthus palmeri. A quantitative assay for Amaranthus palmeri identification. This species significantly affects the growth and yield of crops due to its resistance to glyphosate and other herbicides, its continual plant emergence, fast growth, prolific seed production and large biomass (Wise et al., 2009; Ward et al., 2013; Cahoon et al., 2015; EPPO, 2019). The genus Amaranth is listed in the Cornell University list of plants poisonous to livestock with nitrate listed as the primary poison (Cornell University, 2019). Like spinach and many other leafy greens, amaranth leaves also contain oxalic acid, which can be harmful to individuals with kidney problems if consumed in excess. Plant Cell. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Cooperative Extension, which staffs local offices in all 100 counties and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. Season and sowing. Ethnobiology Letters, 9(2), 14-227. In many places, the plant has developed resistance since at least 2006 to glyphosate, a … [1], Palmer amaranth is considered a threat most specifically to the production of cotton and soybean crops in the southern United States. A comparative analysis of alien plant species along the Romanian Black Sea coastal area. Amaranthus palmeri is similar to A. tuberculatus, A. retroflexus and A. hybridus, all native species of North America. III. Recommended POST herbicide treatments include: glyphosate + S-metolachlor + mesotrione + atrazine, thiencarbazone-methyl + tembotrione + atrazine, and glyphosate + atrazine (Wiggins et al., 2015). http://www.tropicos.org/, Murphy B P, Plewa D E, Phillippi E, Bissonnette S M, Tranel P J, 2017. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label. [13], In 2019, Kansas State University researchers documented a population of Palmer amaranth with resistance to 2,4-D and Dicamba in Kansas. Seed production via apomixis has been reported by Ribeiro et al. In: Plants For A Future Database Dawlish, UK: Plants For A Future.http://www.pfaf.org/USER/Default.aspx. Populations in the eastern United States are … http://www.griis.org/, Guo, P. G., Al-Khatib, K., 2003. Although some references cite the species as being present in Australia, this is probably a recording error as the only reference to A. palmeri there are three specimens from the United States deposited at the Northern Territory Herbarium (Atlas of Living Australia, 2019). A. palmeri has spread worldwide from its native range since the early 20th century, mainly through accidental seed dispersal related to agricultural activities (Ward et al., 2013; EPPO, 2019). Weed Technology, 29(3), 412-418. doi: 10.1614/WT-D-14-00145.1, Wise, A. M., Grey, T. L., Prostko, E. P., Vencill, W. K., Webster, T. M., 2009. Amaranthus: a potential food and feed resource. Amaranthus palmeri – Carelessweed (Near the Tanque Verde Wash in Tucson) -- Image by kenne These plants are often found growing in fields, along roadsides, in drainage areas, and along desert washes. Amaranthus palmeri is an annual herbaceous plant that is spreading rapidly beyond its native range in North America. Growers of crops have not been able to provide adequate moisture to offset prolonged temperatures above 85 °F (29 °C) with a 112 °F (44 °C) heat index. Amaranthus palmeri is a species of edible flowering plant in the amaranth genus. Peterson, D. E., 1999. Consumption of A. palmeri seed is recommended because of its high protein and fat content (Kindscher et al., 2018). For soybeans, fomesafen and lactofen are used for A, palmeri plants that are less than 8 cm tall. Palmer amaranth, also known as Palmer pigweed, is an extremely aggressive, fast-growing species that has become a serious weed problem in vegetable and row crops in the southern half of the United States in recent years. Abstract. Amaranth, in general, is a good wild food. Weed Science, 51(5), 696-701. doi: 10.1614/P2002-159, Steinmaus, S. J., Prather, T. S., Holt, J. S., 2000. In: The PLANTS Database. Weed Technology, 23(2), 214-220. doi: 10.1614/WT-08-098.1, World Flora Online, 2019. A quantitative assay for Amaranthus palmeri identification. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA. 73 (11), 2221-2224. De Andrade Jr, ER , Cavenaghi, AL, Guimarães, SC, 2015. nov. Bothalia - African Biodiversity & Conservation, 47(1), Art.#2100. This should be followed up for 4-5 years to be successful. Culpepper AS, Whitaker JR, MacRae AW, York AC (2008) Distribution of glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) in Georgia and North Carolina during 2005–2006. A. palmeri is reported as being dispersed in seed mixes used for habitat restoration. Here, we present the most contiguous draft assemblies of these three species to date. Physiological and Molecular Characterization of Hydroxyphenylpyruvate Dioxygenase (HPPD)-inhibitor Resistance in Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S.Wats.) Amaranthus spinosus, commonly known as the spiny amaranth, spiny pigweed, prickly amaranth or thorny amaranth, is a plant is native to the tropical Americas, but is present on most continents as an introduced species and sometimes a noxious weed. Dicamba is also used for the control of A. palmeri (Cahoon et al., 2015). In Tamil, “rajgira” is called “arai-k-keerai vidhai-அரைக்கீரை விதை”.. Sciencetific name: Amaranthus Tristis. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. "Biology of amaranths". Published on the internet. J Integr Med. http://ww2.bgbm.org/EuroPlusMed, GRIIS, 2019. Amaranthus Palmeri, Nairobi, Kenya. Massinga, R. A., Currie, R. S., Horak, M. J., Boyer, J., Jr., 2001. This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. http://www.eol.org, EPPO, 2019. In addition, the seed is spread by traditional means, such as harvesting, inadequate cleaning of equipment, and the spreading of infested materials, such as manure. The use of drones to scan cultivated lands and one-kilometre radius around the farms is being recommended in South Africa to identify areas infested by A. palmeri (CropLife, 2019). [6] As a result, the primary economic importance of Palmer amaranth to American farmers has been as a noxious weed and a competitor to more marketable crops, rather than as a crop in its own right. In Brazil this weed first evolved resistance to Group G/9 herbicides in 2015 and infests Cotton. Tropicos database. Euro+Med PlantBase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity. Weed Science, 63(1), 264-272. doi: 10.1614/WS-D-14-00051.1. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Sowing can be done throughout the year. Although the native habitat of A. palmeri is arid desert areas of the southwest USA and the north of Mexico, it is spreading fast into higher latitudes and milder climates. 2001 Sida 19:931--974, 975--992; Sauer 1967 Ann Missouri Bot Gard … Steckel LE, 2007. A. palmeri can be found at altitudes of 100 to 1000 m (Encyclopedia of Life, 2019). The government of Uruguay has also created a video with information about the species and a means to report its presence via the internet (Ministerio de Agricultura, Ganadería y Pesca, 2019). This reference perhaps takes into consideration the presence of the species in the Dominican Republic in 1929 (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2019); nevertheless most of the references worldwide consider the species to be native only to North America. A Northern Arizona homeowner's guide to identifying and managing invasive plants. Mechanism of extreme genetic recombination in weedy Amaranthus hybrids. Using Amaranthus palmeri pollen to mark captured tarnished plant bugs. Previously, Palmer amaranth in Kansas has developed resistance to ALS, atrazine, glyphosate and HPPD herbicides—mesotrione, Huskie, Laudis, Impact, and Armezon—leaving growers with very few postemergence options to manage this weed. Govaerts, R. et al. In: EPPO Global database Paris, France: EPPO. Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) is a dicot weed in the Amaranthaceae family. More information is also needed on the effects of A. palmeri in natural habitats. Do not walk … Control of large infestations of A. palmeri can be very costly to landowners. A 2-yr field study was conducted to compare the growth of Amaranthus palmeri, A. rudis, A. retroflexus, and A. albus planted in June and July. Amaranthus palmeri is native to to the desert regions of the southwest United States and northern Mexico. It is native to most of the southern half of North America. Online Database Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx, USDA-NRCS, 2019. We utilized a combination of Pacific Biosciences long-read sequencing and chromatin contact mapping information to assemble and order sequences of A. palmeri … Contextual translation of "amaranthus tricolor" into Tamil. It occupies the middle ground between excellent and poor. Amaranthus palmeri S.Watson is an accepted name This name is the accepted name of a species in the genus Amaranthus (family Amaranthaceae). https://www.grainsa.co.za/upload/Plan-for-eradication-of-the-Palmer-Amaranth-in-SA.pdf. Amaranthus palmeri is an annual herb native to desert and arid regions of southwestern USA and northern Mexico. Confirmation and control of glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) in Arkansas. A. palmeri is reported as invasive in the USA, Argentina and Brazil, due to the negative impact it has on agriculture. The mechanism of resistance is amplification of a 399-kb extrachromosomal circular DNA, called the EPSPS replicon, and is unique to glyphosate-resistant plants. The species Amaranthus palmeri (Palmer amaranth) causes the greatest reduction in soybean yields and has the potential to reduce yields by 17-68% in field experiments. The PRE herbicide application of combinations such as S-metolachlor + flumioxazin or flumioxazin + pyroxasulfone, followed by fomesafen is also recommended. This species can produce seeds both sexually and apomictically (Ribeiro et al., 2014). The plant can be toxic to livestock animals due to the presence of nitrates in the leaves. Amaranthus palmeri Taxonomy ID: 107608 (for references in articles please use NCBI:txid107608) current name Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri): a review. It is also considered an opportunistic species as seed will germinate within a day in response to intermittent rainfall, with the seedlings having a fast growth rate (Berger et al., 2015). Climate change models predict future increases in temperatures can expand the range of the species northward into portions of Canada and Europe (Kistner and Hatfield, 2018). The seeds are accidentally dispersed mainly though agriculture and the crop trade. Catkin-like cymes of densely packed flowers grow in summer or autumn. Palmer amaranth is among the "top five most troublesome weeds" in the southeast of the United States and has already evolved resistances to … Staminate flowers: tepals 5, unequal, 2-4 mm, apex acute; inner tepals with prominent midrib excurrent as rigid spine, apex long-acuminate or mucronulate; stamens 5. Weed Technology, 28(1), 28-38. doi: 10.1614/WT-D-13-00090.1, Jones, G. D., Allen, K. C., 2012. Cereal trade, Seen for the first time in Lleida, Cataluna at the margin of a maize field. The website also provides access to a database and images of herbarium specimens found at the University of South Florida and other herbaria. Bryson CT, Defelice MS, 2010. Functional PPO2 mutations: co‐occurrence in one plant or the same ppo2 allele of herbicide‐resistant Amaranthus palmeri in the US mid‐south Matheus M. Noguera. Amaranth is an ancient grain that is loaded with healthy nutrients. USA: The University of Arizona Cooperative Extension, Coconino County.https://www.nazinvasiveplants.org/, USDA-ARS, 2019. , 2010a ). Palmer amaranth ( Amaranthus palmeri S. Palynology, 36(2), 153. doi: 10.1080/01916122.2012.662178. 2013;11(3):206-12. 2.5 kg/ha of seeds broadcasted evenly on the beds after mixing with 10 parts of sand. De Vlaming, V., Proctor, V. W., 1968. Small mammals, such as rodents, as well as birds are reported as seed dispersers of A. palmeri (Ward et al., 2013). Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica, 48(2), 347-354. http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1851-23722013000200016, Murphy, B. P., Plewa, D. E., Phillippi, E., Bissonnette, S. M., Tranel, P. J., 2017. Weed Science, 49(2), 202-208. doi: 10.1614/0043-1745(2001)049[0202:IOPAIC]2.0.CO;2. The species Amaranthus palmeri (Palmer amaranth) causes the greatest reduction in soybean yields and has the potential to reduce yields by 17-68% in field experiments. The wind carries the pollen from resistant male plants to female plants. It became a major agricultural weed in the southern Great Plains by the late 1990s (Horak, 1997), and now infests at least 750,000 acres of co… Kingsbury, J. M., 1964. (Sobre la presencia de Amaranthus palmeri (Amaranthaceae) en Argentina). In: EPPO Global database. Amaranthus palmeri has a very high risk of unintentional introduction through crop production and trade (Ward et al., 2013). 17 pp. Previously recorded at the port of Sevilla and in Palos de la Frontera (Huelva) in the vicinity of industrial premises where seeds and plant products are processed, La Vega. Involvement of facultative apomixis in inheritance of EPSPS gene amplification in glyphosate-resistant Amaranthus palmeri. Temperature effects on germination and growth of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus), Palmer amaranth (A. palmeri), and common waterhemp (A. rudis). Also, this plant can survive in tough conditions. Here is a detailed look at amaranth and its health benefits. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies, Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.1192 pp. Potential geographic distribution of Palmer amaranth under current and future climates. Toxic plants of North America, (Second Edition) . Klingaman, T. E., Oliver, L. R., 1994. Although this species can be used as forage it can be poisonous to livestock due to the high concentrations of nitrates present (Schmutz et al., 1974; Burrows and Tyrl, 2013). The resistance of A. palmeri to glyphosate is a major concern for crop producers worldwide, as this herbicide is widely used for general weed control  agricultural fields (Ward et al., 2013). In the absence of competition, seed production for A. palmeri is over 600,000 seeds per female plant (Keeley, Carter, & Thullen, 1987). Originally native to the North American Southwest, from southern California to Texas and northern Mexico, Amaranthus palmeri at present is a successful invasive species, which is evident from its expansion both in eastern North America and overseas[270. Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser. The Botanical Review, 83(4), 382-436.] Amaranthus roxburghianus root extract in combination with piperine as a potential treatment of ulcerative colitis in mice. American Journal of Botany, 55(1), 20-26. doi: 10.2307/2440487. [4] Palmer amaranth has a tendency to absorb excess soil nitrogen, and if grown in overly fertilized soils, it can contain excessive levels of nitrates, even for humans. 2020 Jul;32(7):2132-2140. doi: 10.1105/tpc.20.00099. Sauer J, 1957. Manual control is recommended in the absence of herbicides, when the plants have not reached the reproductive stage and before using machinery. This includes cleaning footwear and clothing. In Oklahoma this weed first evolved resistance to Group G/9 herbicides in 2018 and infests Soybean. Weed Technology, 29(3), 405-411. doi: 10.1614/WT-D-14-00146.1, Davis, A. S., Schutte, B. J., Hager, A. G., Young, B. G., 2015. Kindscher K, Martin L, Corbett S, Lafond D, 2018. Burrows GE, Tyrl RJ, 2013. > 0°C, wet all year, Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. Amaranthus palmeri is reported as the host of several insects including Aufeius impressicollis, Taylorilygus pallidulus [Taylorilygus apicalis], Polymerus basalis and Lygus lineolaris (Snodgrass et al., 1984; Wheeler Jr, 1988; Jones and Allen, 2012; Encyclopedia of Life, 2019). Euro+Med PlantBase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity. (Video informativo sobre el Amaranthus palmeri). Proposed research include: the effects of light quality on growth response of A. palmeri; the effects of shading on fecundity and seed dormancy (Jha et al., 2008); mechanisms that regulate the persistence of the species in the soil seedbank (Webster and Grey, 2015); and models of potential pollen movement to help in herbicide resistance management programmes (Ward et al., 2013). Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) is a dicot weed in the Amaranthaceae family. Cereal trade, Although means of introduction is unknown it is reported from agricultural fields, Managed forests, plantations and orchards, Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate, < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25]), Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer, Warm average temp. carelessweed. Seed rate. [17], Pollen is most commonly spread by wind. glomeratus Uline & W.L.Bray, Highly adaptable to different environments, Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year, Negatively impacts trade/international relations, Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally, Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant. The spine-tipped flower bracts are prickly (especially when dry) and can scratch bare skin. Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) is a dicot weed in the Amaranthaceae family. Seeds from Amaranthus palmeri plants grown under natural photoperiods at 47 and 0% shading (with neutral-density black shade cloth) germinated to 21 and 25%, respectively, at 30°C. It is hardy to zone (UK) 8 and is frost tender. Circular Técnica, Rondonópolis, Brazil: Instituto Mato-grossense do Algodão (IMAmt) (19), 8 pp. It is cited as native for all of the USA (USDA-NRCS, 2019). ), maize (Zea mays), soybean (Glycine max), peanut (Arachis hypogaea), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and various vegetables (Ward et al., 2013). The role of harbours. It has several common names, including carelessweed, dioecious amaranth, Palmer's amaranth, Palmer amaranth, and Palmer's pigweed.It is native to most of the southern half of North America. Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) management in dicamba-resistant cotton. On the presence of Amaranthus palmeri (Amaranthaceae) in Argentina. Wheeler Jr AG, 1988. Euro+Med, 2019. [11], In 2014, the Texas Department of Agriculture asked the United States Environmental Protection Agency for permission to use the restricted chemical propazine on 3 million acres (1.2 million hectares) of cotton threatened by Palmer amaranth. Resistance to glyphosate in Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) populations from New Mexico pecan orchards. 2019. Full-season Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) interference with cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Rinsing the insects three times with 95% ethyl alcohol prior to acetolysis removed 99% of the external pollen. It is drought tolerant but prefers moist soils (PFAF, 2019). Establishing the geographical distribution and level of acetolactate synthase resistance of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) accessions in Georgia. To control herbicide-resistant A. palmeri the rotation of herbicides having different modes of action and using a combination of multiple herbicides is recommended (Chandi et al., 2013; Ward et al., 2013; Jhala et al., 2014). Vegetative stages should be removed completely before the plants set seed (CropLife, 2019). In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Anastasiu P, Negrean G, Samoilǎ C, Memedemin D, Cogǎlniceanu D, 2011. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Plants For A Future Database. Confirmation and control of triazine and 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase-inhibiting herbicide-resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) in Nebraska. Advances in Cereal Science and Technology, 6, 357. Amaranthus palmeri in Flora of North America . The dioecious Amaranthus spp. Flowering can occur throughout the year although most of it occurs during the summer months. Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide. Other means of spread reported for the species are through water flow, including irrigation, via animals, strong winds and hurricanes (Menges,1987). Montevideo, Uruguay: https://www.gub.uy/ministerio-ganaderia-agricultura-pesca/politicas-y-gestion/yuyo-colorado-amaranthus-palmeri, Minnesota Department of Agriculture, 2019. http://www.eol.org, EPPO, 2019. palmeri. Sowing can be done throughout the year. [14], An Arkansas population has developed fomesafen resistance. Utricles tan to brown, occasionally reddish brown, obovoid to subglobose, 1.5-2 mm, shorter than tepals, at maturity walls thin, almost smooth or indistinctly rugose. A. palmeri outcompetes other species by a combination of various advantageous characteristics, such as resistance to glyphosate and other herbicides, high photosynthetic rate, its continued emergence and fast growth, prolific seed production, large biomass produced and the release of allelopathic compounds. The presence of oxalates in A. palmeri can also be harmful to livestock (Saunders and Becker, 1984). DOI:10.1002/ps.4632, USDA-ARS, 2019. After harvest, agricultural plots should be inspected for the presence ofA. It will outgrow cotton and is much more efficient. Seed rate. Links . Encyclopedia of Life. Well drained loamy soils with slightly acidic nature and warm climate are suitable for amaranthus cultivation. The website also provides access to a database and images of herbarium specimens found at the University of South Florida and other herbaria. Epub 2020 Apr 23. Species belonging to the genus Amaranthus have been cultivated for their grains for 8,000 years. Reveal, J. L., Spellenberg, R., 1976. Effects of Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) Establishment Time and Distance from the Crop Row on Biological and Phenological Characteristics of the Weed: Implications on Soybean Yield - Volume 67 Issue 1 - Nicholas E. Korres, Jason K. Norsworthy, Andy Mauromoustakos Planta, 239(1), 199-212. doi: 10.1007/s00425-013-1972-3. St Paul, Minnesota, USA: Minnesota Department of Agriculture.https://www.mda.state.mn.us/plants/pestmanagement/weedcontrol/noxiouslist/palmeramaranth, Missouri Botanical Garden, 2019. (2014). https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov, Jeanine Vélez-Gavilán,  University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez, Puerto Rico. Palmer amaranth. This species is dioecious, produces vast quantities of wind-carried pollen and has prolific seed production that surpasses 600,000 seeds per plant (Ward et al., 2013; EPPO, 2019). Amaranthus palmeri is an annual herbaceous plant that is spreading rapidly beyond its native range in North America. Atlas of Living Australia, 2019. In: Euro+Med PlantBase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity. The species is also reported as being dispersed through seed mixes used for habitat restoration (Murphy et al., 2017). Culpepper AS, Whitaker JR, MacRae AW, York AC (2008) Distribution of glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) in Georgia and North Carolina during 2005–2006. In: The PLANTS Database Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team.https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov, Ward, S. M., Webster, T. M., Steckel, L. E., 2013. > 0°C, dry summers, Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter, Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. It was used extensively by the native American population with at least seven tribes preparing it a wide variety of ways. Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, M?xico, Michoac?n, Morelos, Nuevo Le?n, Oaxaca, Puebla, Quer?taro, San Luis Potos?, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz, Zacatecas, Native to the southwest of USA from California to Texas and introduced elsewhere. 8 pp. Although native to areas with high temperatures and low precipitation, its phenotypic plasticity has allowed A. palmeri to spread into areas of lower temperatures and higher altitudes (Ward et al., 2013). : here to stay. seeds (Murphy et al., 2017). In: Manual of the alien plants of Belgium. Evaluation of flumioxazin and S-metolachlor rate and timing for palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) control in sweetpotato. It slowly infiltrated the southeast United States and has become one of the most significant weed pests of cotton and soybean producers. Hybridization is widely reported in the genus, but hybrids with A. palmeri have been reported to be nonviable or sterile (Steinau et al., 2003; Ward et al., 2013). The species Amaranthus palmeri (Palmer amaranth) causes the greatest reduction in soybean yields and has the potential to reduce yields by 17-68% in field experiments. Poisonous plants of the United States and Canada, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc.xiii+626 pp. DOI:10.2134/ael2017.12.0044, Missouri Botanical Garden, 2019. Some populations have also developed resistance to multiple herbicides. Online Database. At sublethal levels, abortion, depression of lactation, digestive disturbances, myocardial degeneration and renal disease may occur (Kingsbury, 1964; Bryson and DeFelice, 2010). Wiggins, M. S., McClure, M. A., Hayes, R. M., Steckel, L. E., 2015. A qPCR assay has been developed to detect the presence of this species in a mix of Amaranthus spp. This plant was widely used for food by Native … It is considered the most invasive species of the dioecious amaranths and is ranked as one of the most troublesome weeds of various crops in the United States. Weed Science, 56(5), 729-734. doi: 10.1614/WS-07-203.1, Jhala, A. J., Sandell, L. D., Rana, N., Kruger, G. R., Knezevic, S. Z., 2014. Glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) morphology, growth, and seed production in Georgia. J Cotton Sci 12:306–310 Google Scholar Centurion, South Africa: CropLife.17 pp. 47 (1), Art.#2100. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. datasets have provided data to the NBN Atlas for this species.. Browse the list of datasets and find organisations you can join if you are interested in participating in a survey for species like Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson > 10°C, Cold average temp. 632-635. Disclaimer: ITIS taxonomy is based on the latest scientific consensus available, and is provided as a general reference source for interested parties. Leaves: long-petiolate; blade obovate or rhombic-obovate to elliptic proximally, sometimes lanceolate distally, 1.5-7 × 1-3.5 cm, base broadly to narrowly cuneate, margins entire, plane, apex subobtuse to acute, usually with terminal mucro. Adult TPB were allowed to feed on Amaranthus palmeri flowers for 72 hours, then sacrificed at 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 96 hours. Department of Animal Science - Plants poisonous to livestock. (2017). For infestations of maize fields, the use of glufosinate with atrazine is recommended. Light availability affects germination as plants growing in the shade produce seeds with a lower germination success than plants growing in full sun (Ward et al., 2013). Before the start of the next season, a pre-emergence herbicide should be applied to plots and adjacent fields (CropLife, 2019). A. retroflexus and A. hybridus have puberulous stems and leaves, while A. palmeri and A. tuberculatus have glabrous stems and leaves. The genus Amaranthus consists of about 75 species, mostly from tropical, sub-tropical and warm temperate zones (Ward et al., 2013; Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2019). The range of A. palmeri is also expected to expand due to climate change that will create suitable conditions for its establishment. It is also reported to occur in orchards of citrus species, pecan (Carya illinoinensis), mango fruit (Mangifera indica) and apple (Malus domestica) (Mohseni-Moghadam et al., 2013; Ward et al., 2013). Its arrival in South America by the first part of the 2000s is also related to crop production (De Andrade et al., 2015). Seeds need a shallow disposition in the soil to germinate, which can occur within one to two days (Ward et al., 2013; EPPO, 2019). 682 likes. Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) damage niche in Illinois soybean is seed limited. Amaranthus palmeri Plants. Inflorescences terminal, linear spikes to panicles, usually drooping, occasionally erect, especially when young, with few axillary clusters, uninterrupted or interrupted in proximal part of plant. Encyclopedia of Life, 2019. Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species. Ithaca, New York, USA: Cornell University Department of Animal Science.http://poisonousplants.ansci.cornell.edu/php/plants.php?action=display, CropLife, 2019. Anastasiu, P, Negrean, G, Samoilǎ, C, Memedemin, D, Cogǎlniceanu, D, 2011. Palmer amaranth. Research was conducted during 2010 and 2011 to determine if Palmer amaranth control and soybean yield were affected by soybean plant population and combinations of … [16], In 2014, North Dakota State University's "ND Weed Control Guide" selected Amaranthus palmeri, as "weed-of-the-year" to raise awareness about its "potentially devastating impact. Amaranthus palmeri is reported as one of the most competitive weeds of crops in the United States (Morgan et al., 2001; Norsworthy et al., 2008; Webster and Gray, 2015). "[19], United States Environmental Protection Agency, "Herbicide resistance may change future of row crop farming in Southeast", "Waterhemp--Biology, Identification, and Management Considerations", "TDA seeking emergency approval for propazine", "EPA Denies Texas Emergency Weedkiller Request", "Palmer amaranth resistance to 2,4-D and dicamba confirmed in Kansas", "Resistance to PPO‐inhibiting herbicide in Palmer amaranth from Arkansas", "Resistant pigweed: the ultimate monkey wrench", "Palmer amaranth is a looming concern: This aggressive, herbicide resistance weed has been travelling north, and may be in our fields soon", "Palmer Amaranth – Weed of TWO Years – 2014-2015", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Amaranthus_palmeri&oldid=990139135, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 23 November 2020, at 01:04. Weed Technology, 27(1), 12-27. doi: 10.1614/WT-D-12-00113.1, Webster, T. M., Grey, T. L., 2015. Palmer amaranth is among the "top five most troublesome weeds" in the southeast of the United States and has already evolved resistances to dinitroaniline herbicides and acetolactate synthase inhibitors. EPPO Global database. Weed Science, 61(2), 259-266. doi: 10.1614/WS-D-12-00063.1, Cornell University, 2019. Palmer's amaranth is native to the southwest U.S. and Mexico, but it has aggressively expanded its range, becoming invasive in many parts of the world. Research has shown that these particular biotypes … Belgium: National Botanic Garden of Belgium. In: Manual of the alien plants of Belgium , Belgium: National Botanic Garden of Belgium.http://alienplantsbelgium.be/. Agricultural and Environmental Letters, 3(1), 170044. doi: 10.2134/ael2017.12.0044. Ehleringer J, 1983. in North Carolina. A. palmeri is believed to have arrived in Europe as a contaminant of grains and oil seed rape by the 1950s (EPPO, 2019; Alien plants of Belgium, 2019). S-Metolachlor is commonly used by soybean and cotton growers, especially with POST treatments for overlapping residuals, to obtain season-long control of glyphosate- and acetolactate synthase (ALS)–resistant Palmer amaranth.In Crittenden County, AR, reports of Palmer amaranth escapes following S … Ribeiro, D. N., Pan, Z. Q., Duke, S. O., Nandula, V. K., Baldwin, B. S., Shaw, D. R., Dayan, F. E., 2014. Authors William T … Amaranthus palmeri is an annual dioecious forb native to the area encompassing north‐western Mexico and the south‐western US (Ward, Webster, & Steckel, 2013). Pest Management Science, 73(11), 2221-2224. doi: 10.1002/ps.4632, Norsworthy, J. K., Griffith, G. M., Scott, R. C., Smith, K. L., Oliver, L. R., 2008. A., Jan, S., & Rashid, I. Links . Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., Strong, M. T., 2012. A. palmeri can also suppress the growth of crops through allelopathy (EPPO, 2019). © Copyright 2020 CAB International. Pest Management Science. Host plants of Taylorilygus pallidulus and Polymerus basalis (Hemiptera: Miridae) in the delta of Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. Seeds germinate best under natural light (Ward et al., 2013). Amaranthus palmeri (Amaranth) Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri), a native North American weed also known as careless weed, is recognized as one of the most troublesome weed species in the southern and southwestern United States (Webster, 2001).Palmer amaranth is a short-lived, summer annual plant that readily invades croplands (Steyermark, 1963). The EccDNA Replicon: A Heritable, Extranuclear Vehicle That Enables Gene Amplification and Glyphosate Resistance in Amaranthus palmeri. The leaves are cooked and used as a vegetable and the seeds are ground into meal for food by the Navajo and Yuma tribes (Sauer, 1957). The small seeds of A. palmeri are predominantly gravity-dispersed, but can also spread through water (Ward et al., 2013; EPPO, 2019). by Schmutz EM, Freeman BN, Reed RE]. Amaranthus palmeri is a species of edible flowering plant in the amaranth genus. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx, USDA-NRCS, 2019. Amaranthus Palmeri - Princely House, Moi Avenue (Next to Mt. Weed Science, 63(3), 658-668. doi: 10.1614/WS-D-14-00177.1. > 10°C, Cold average temp. Our page is about Health Benefits of Amaranth, Kikuyu: Terere Kisii/ Luhyia: Libokoi; Luo: Ododo; Swahili: Mchicha. Oecologia, 57, 107-112. Preparation of field Its range is also predicted to expand as a result of climate change (Kistner and Hatfield, 2018). Miscellaneous chromosome counts of western American plants. It is an opportunistic weed with the ability to outcompete other species partly due to being able to germinate throughout the season, a rapid growth rate and prolific seed production (Ehleringer, 1983). The cleaning of vehicles and machinery before entering the plots is also recommended; setting up appropriate planting dates for crops and carefully hand weeding the existing A. palmeri plants is also suggested (EPPO, 2019). Soil movement between fields should also be avoided. Potential geographic distribution of Palmer amaranth under current and future climates. However, it is not a legal authority for statutory or regulatory purposes. Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) is a problematic weed encountered in U.S. cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] The aggressiveness and rapid growth of A palmeri enable it to outcompete other species and reduce native plant diversity, which at the same time can affect wildlife and pollinators (University of Arizona Cooperative Extension, 2019). Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need. Amaranthus palmeri is native to to the desert regions of the southwest United States and northern Mexico. Manual of the alien plants of Belgium. Recent migration and evolution of the dioecious amaranths. In the absence of competition, seed production for A. palmeri is over 600,000 seeds per female plant (Keeley, Carter, & Thullen, 1987). 2017. Acclimation of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) to shading. Prev Next Pause Resume. Well drained loamy soils with slightly acidic nature and warm climate are suitable for amaranthus cultivation. Amaranthus tuberculatus, Amaranthus hybridus, and Amaranthus palmeri are agronomically important weed species. It has also been introduced to Europe, Australia, and other areas. Journal of the New York Entomological Society, 96, 304-309. To eradicate the species, a combination of various methods, including using herbicides, manual and mechanical removal, implementing sanitary procedures, using cover crops, tillage and applying crop rotations is proposed. Acad. In many places, the plant has developed resistance since at least 2006 to glyphosate, a widely used broad-spectrum herbicide. Ecophysiology of Amaranthus palmeri, a Sonoran Desert summer annual. The impact of herbicide-resistant weeds on Kansas agriculture. The … Tropicos database. The implementation of scouting programmes to detect the presence of the species in agricultural land, including drainage systems, before fully reproductive is recommended. Meyers, S. L., Jennings, K. M., Schultheis, J. R., Monks, D. W., 2010. Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species., http://www.griis.org/, Iamonico D, El-Mokni R, 2017. Journal of Experimental Botany, 51(343), 275-286. doi: 10.1093/jexbot/51.343.275, University of Arizona Cooperative Extension, 2019. It will not grow well in the shade. Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson Steve Hurst - USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database - Not copyrighted image Foto visualizzata 324 volte. Amaranthus spinosus L. probably not naturalized, uncommon waif. 1192 pp. It has several common names, including carelessweed, dioecious amaranth, Palmer's amaranth, Palmer amaranth, and Palmer's pigweed.It is native to most of the southern half of North America. Various preemergence (PRE) and postemergence (POST) herbicides are recommended for use on A. palmeri (Ward et al., 2013; Cahoon et al., 2015; Wiggins et al., 2015). The PLANTS Database. Steinau, A. N., Skinner, D. Z., Steinau, M., 2003. Rowland, M. W., Murray, D. S., Verhalen, L. M., 1999. In: Euro+Med PlantBase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity . It is a successful weedy species that has become a problem of crop fields and waste lands. CropLife, 2019. The role of harbours. In: Encyclopedia of Life.
Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri), a native North American weed also known as careless weed, is recognized as one of the most troublesome weed species in the southern and southwestern United States (Webster, 2001).Palmer amaranth is a short-lived, summer annual plant that readily invades croplands (Steyermark, 1963). It has several common names, including carelessweed, dioecious amaranth, Palmer's amaranth, Palmer amaranth, and Palmer's pigweed. For example, in Georgia, USA, cotton growers have spent more than 110 million US dollars annually in the control of A. palmeri (Webster and Gray, 2015). About 90% of the seeds will germinate during the next year and 10% over a four-year period (Barber et al., 2015). Kistner, E. J., Hatfield, J. L., 2018. > 0°C, dry winters), Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year, Warm average temp. 2019. In: Tropicos database St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.tropicos.org/, Mohseni-Moghadam, M., Schroeder, J., Heerema, R., Ashigh, J., 2013. Seeds in soil, manure and waste associated with agricultural practices, Seeds used for cattle due to high protein content, Strong winds and hurricane dispersal of the seeds, Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye, Amaranthus palmeri var. The record derives from WCSP (in review) (data supplied on 2012-03-23) which reports it as an accepted name with original publication details: Proc. Evaluation of POST-harvest herbicide applications for seed prevention of glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri). There are no pictures available for this datasheet, Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2019, Brassica oleracea (cabbages, cauliflowers), Debris and waste associated with human activities, University of Arizona Cooperative Extension, 2019, Minnesota Department of Agriculture, 2019, https://www.uaex.edu/publications/pdf/FSA2177.pdf, http://poisonousplants.ansci.cornell.edu/php/plants.php?action=display, https://www.grainsa.co.za/upload/Plan-for-eradication-of-the-Palmer-Amaranth-in-SA.pdf, https://www.gub.uy/ministerio-ganaderia-agricultura-pesca/politicas-y-gestion/yuyo-colorado-amaranthus-palmeri, https://www.mda.state.mn.us/plants/pestmanagement/weedcontrol/noxiouslist/palmeramaranth, http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1851-23722013000200016, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License, Accidental introduction from shipping (no details given).
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